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友善列印

 
師資培育 -Teacher Cultivation

  83年〈師資培育法〉公布施行之前,臺灣地區高級中等以下學校(含幼稚園)教師職前教育制度主要依據法令為〈師範學校法〉、〈師範學院規程〉及〈師範教育法〉。

師資培育多元化
  〈師資培育法〉自83年2月公布施行,從一元、計畫制的師範教育,邁向多元、儲備制的師資培育,個人自費為主、甄選制的師資培育取代政府公費、分發制的師資培育。於91年7月修正公布之〈師資培育法〉,調整修業時間、實習及教師檢定制度,以實質的資格檢定,取代書面文件檢覈,並於94年首度辦理教師資格檢定考試。103年因應幼托整合政策,修正〈師資培育法〉第24條,提供幼兒園教保服務人員在職進修師資職前教育課程,提升幼兒園師資培育數量與品質。

落實以學生學習為中心的師資培育
  106年6月14日〈師資培育法〉修正公布,改革教師資格檢定制度為教師資格考試及教育實習,自107年2月1日起推行先資格考試、後實習,透過考試檢核適量質精之學生,落實教學及導師實習制度。教育部於107年6月29日訂定教師專業素養指引及師資職前教育課程基準,落實以學習者為中心(learner-centered) 、尊重多元差異、社會關懷及國際視野之師資培育制度,提升師資品質。

教師資格檢定考試制度調整
  教師資格檢定考試在提升我國教師專業素質及強化教師專業形象,為配合精進教師資格檢定考試政策方向,該檢定考試自103年度起,增加擬真情境題比重,以課室實務的狀況,檢視教師所需的教育專業知能。經合理提高各科非選擇題比率,降低記憶題型,增加分析、應用及創造的情境題型,強調教學實作的知能。另於國小師資類科加考「數學能力測驗」一科,以全面有效提升國小教師數學教學知能。另依〈師資培育法〉第10條規定,教師資格檢定內容包括教師資格考試及教育實習兩部分,並規定須先通過教師資格考試後才可以修習教育實習,教師資格檢定考試名稱修正為教師資格考試。

辦理師資培育評鑑
  教育部自94年度起,定期檢視各師資培育之大學師資培育辦學績效,辦理師資培育評鑑,以獎勵辦學績優、輔導需要改進、停辦成效不彰之培育單位,並運用評鑑結果核定調整師資培育規模及經費獎、補助,以強化學生修習師資職前教育課程輔導措施,確保師資培育品質。第1週期評鑑於94-97(98、99複評)年執行完成,為精進評鑑制度,確保培育品質,根據前期評鑑實施成果、歷年評鑑委員建議事項及目前中等以下各級學校教學需求,同時參考大學系所評鑑制度與國際師資培育評鑑發展趨勢,並召開多場公聽會、座談會與諮詢會議廣納意見,於101-105(106、107複評) 年實施第2週期評鑑;第3週期評鑑於107-112(113、114複評)年實施,具「簡化評鑑指標」、「授權符合門檻條件之部分學校師資類科辦理自我評鑑」2項特色,並發揮課程導引功能。

建立教師進修制度,鼓勵教師專業發展
  為提供全國中小學暨幼兒園教師在職進修資訊平臺、研習時數紀錄電子化及教師進修資料庫服務,自教育部於92年建置「全國教師在職進修資訊網」。本網站係為教師研習課程之登錄平臺,並有線上報名功能,目前約22.2萬名教師擁有該網站帳號。107年教師帳號個人化專屬首頁正式上線,進一步提升各研習辦理單位課程管理之便利性及維護教師研習權益。

  因應十二年國民基本教育之啟動與推廣,教育部自97年起協助國立臺灣師範大學、國立彰化師範大學及國立高雄師範大學等3校設立「進修學院」,以服務中等學校教師在職進修,提升教師素質、培養教師專業知能並建立教學標竿楷模;100年度建立國民小學師資培用聯盟,結合理論與實務,發展優質典範教學示例。102年度推動〈十二年國民基本教育中等學校教師教學專業能力研習〉及〈建置十二年國民基本教育學習支援系統與辦理中小學教師差異化教學增能方案〉,提升各教育階段普通班教師的教學專業及促進教學成效。104年為與國際接軌,推動〈教師合作問題解決能力教學提升計畫〉,培育21世紀人才關鍵軟實力。另自105年開始推動教師適性教學素養與輔助平臺,以提升教師「適性教學及相關數位科技教學」專業素養為主要目標,使教師透過此輔助平臺適時掌握學生的學習需求,有效擬定適當教學方案。

  配合108學年度實施之〈十二年國民基本教育課程綱要〉,106年辦理新增科技領域教師增能課程及開辦教師在職增能/第二專長學分班,推動〈十二年國民基本教育【自然科學探究與實作】課程發展師資培訓平臺計畫〉,結合網路社群與教育資源,發展由下而上的教師專業發展模式,並從整合各項教師專業發展計畫與資源,請師資培育之大學與地方及中小學夥伴協作,提供不同職涯階段教師多元自主專業發展模式等3大面向,推動教師專業發展支持系統。

推動教師專業發展支持系統
  為精進高級中等以下學校教師在職進修機制,推動教師專業發展支持系統,教育部於106學年度將〈教師專業發展評鑑計畫〉轉型為〈教師專業發展實踐方案〉,並於106年8月11日修正發布〈教育部補助辦理教師專業發展實踐方案作業要點〉,以補助各地方政府統一運用經費,彈性自主、整體規劃以直轄市、縣(市)為中心的教師專業發展計畫。本支持系統的目的在協助地方政府建立教師專業成長區域網絡,組織輔導體系;提供不同職涯階段教師多元自主專業發展模式,並支持由下而上、自主學習之專業社群;鼓勵地方政府、高級中等以下學校、師資培育之大學、民間團體建立教師專業夥伴關係,以在地深耕教師專業發展與教學實務。

公布〈中華民國教師專業標準指引〉
  105年2月15日公布〈中華民國教師專業標準指引〉,以「全球參照、在地統整」為規劃方針,延續101年發布之〈中華民國師資培育白皮書〉所揭櫫之我國理想教師圖像,研發教育專業、學科教學、教學設計、教學實施、學習評量、班級經營、學生輔導、專業成長、專業責任及協作領導等面向之10大教師專業標準及29項教師專業表現指標,彰顯教師工作者之專業性及形塑師資養成及專業發展各階段教師應具備的能力,展現我國對教師專業知能與態度之期許,引領師資培育及教師專業發展。

  Before the announcement and implementation of the Teacher Education Act in 1994, the legislative references of the teacher education system for pre-service teachers in primary, junior high, and senior high schools were the Teacher Training School Act, the Teacher Training School Regulations, and the Teacher Training Education Act.

Diverse Teacher Cultivations
  The Teacher Education Act was announced and implemented in February 1994. Under this Act, the previous single-path and planned teacher training education was changed into various teacher cultivation reservation systems. The teacher cultivation by personal applications and payment replaced the form of teacher cultivation used by government subsidization and placement. The Teacher Education Act was revised in July 2002, and adjusted the study period, educational practices, and teacher certification system. The substantial qualification exams replaced the paper report examinations. The Teacher Qualification Approval Exam was first carried out in 2005. In response to the integration policy of preschools and nursery schools, Article 24 of the Teacher Education Act was revised in 2014. By providing educators in educare institutes with pre-service and in-service educational courses, the quantity and quality of teachers in preschools could be enhanced.

The Implementation of Learner-Centered Teacher Cultivation
  The revision of the Teacher Education Act was announced on June 14, 2017, and it reformed the teacher qualification system into two stages. The teacher qualification approval exam is in the first stage, and educational practices are at the second stage. The order of these two stages has been promoted since February 1, 2018. Through this exam, sufficient qualified students could be selected, and thus could fulfill the teaching and homeroom teacher internship system. On June 29, 2018, the Ministry of Education regulated the Guidelines of Teachers’ Professional Literacy and the Curriculum Standards of Pre-Service Teacher Cultivation, in order to enable the teacher cultivation system to fulfill the goals of the learner-centered concept, to respect the diverse differences, to care about society, to cultivate a global perspective, and, finally, to enhance teachers’ quality.

The Adjustment of the Teacher Qualification Exam System
  The three purposes of the Teacher Qualification Approval Exam are: increasing teachers’ professional literacy, strengthening teachers’ professional image and responding to the policy target of the ongoing refining of the Teacher Qualification Approval Exam. Since 2014, the Teacher Qualification Approval Exam has increased the portion of questions related to practical teaching conditions. In this way, the teachers’ required teaching professional knowledge and skills can be reviewed. The increase in the non-choice questions portion, the decrease in questions requiring memorization, and the increase in types of questions concerning analysis, application, creativity, and practical teaching conditions, have all assisted in strengthening both practical teaching professional knowledge and skills. In addition, the mathematics test was added as an exam subject for teachers in the group of primary school teachers, so as to upgrade efficiently and comprehensively teachers’ mathematics teaching professional knowledge and skills in primary schools. Furthermore, Article 10 of the Teacher Education Act regulates that the content of the Teacher Qualification Approval Exam should contain two parts: the teacher qualification exam, and educational practices. Participants should pass the teacher qualification exam first, and then they should later participate in the educational practices. In 2014, the Teacher Qualification Approval Exam was renamed the Teacher Qualification Exam.

The Implementation of Teacher Cultivation Evaluation
  Since 2005, the Ministry of Education has regularly reviewed the operational performance of teacher cultivations in each teacher education university, and undertaken the teacher cultivation evaluation to encourage institutions which had a good performance, while ceasing the operation of teacher cultivation in institutions which had below-standard performance. The results of the teacher cultivation evaluation have been used for adjusting both the subsidization and the operation scale of teacher cultivation so as to strengthen the pre-service teacher educational course guidance measures for students, and to ensure the quality of teacher cultivation. The First Cycle of the Teacher Cultivation Evaluation was finalized during 2005-2008 (its second review was finalized during 2009-2010). The Second Cycle of the Teacher Cultivation Evaluation was carried out during 2012-2016 (its second review was finalized during 2017-2018) according to the results of: the First Cycle of the Teacher Cultivation Evaluation, the advice issued by the evaluation committee members, and the teaching requirements in primary, junior high and senior high schools. The University Department Evaluation System and the development trends of teacher cultivation evaluation in the international world were consulted as references. Several public hearings, forums, and advisory committees were held to gain more understanding of opinions from the people. The Third Cycle of the Teacher Cultivation Evaluation will be undertaken during 2018-2023 (its second review is estimated to be held during 2024-2025), and will have two features: simplified evaluation indicators, and the authorization to qualified teachers of teacher education programs to implement self-evaluation, in order to demonstrate and fulfill the function of course guidance.

The Establishment of the In-service Teacher Training System for Encouraging Teachers to Continue their Professional Development
  Since 2003, the Ministry of Education has established the National In-service Teachers’ Training Information Website, in order to provide teachers in preschools, primary schools, and junior high schools with an in-service teachers’ training platform, an electronic record of workshop participations, and teacher training database services. This website is the sign-up platform for teacher training workshops and courses, offering all the functions of on-line registration. Up until now, approximately 222,000 teachers have accounts on this website. In 2018, personalized home pages for each teacher account were officially on-line, which further enhanced both the convenience of workshops and the course management for the operational departments, and ensured teachers’ rights to participate in the workshops and courses.

  Since 2008, to respond to the operation and promotion of 12-Year Basic Education, the Ministry of Education has assisted National Taiwan Normal University, National Changhua University of Education, and National Kaohsiung Normal University in establishing colleges of continuing education. The MOE hopes to achieve the following goals: providing teachers in high schools with in-service training, enhancing teachers’ quality, cultivating teachers’ professional knowledge and skills, and setting the teaching standard models. In 2011, the Teacher Cultivation Alliance of Primary Schools was established, in combination with theories and practices, and has developed quality teaching model examples. In 2013, the Junior High and Senior High School Teachers’ Professional Competency Workshop for 12-Year Basic Education and the Advancement Program of Establishing the 12-Year Basic Education Learning Support System and Implementing the Adaptive Instructions for Teachers in Secondary Schools were promoted to increase teachers’ professionalism in regular classes of all educational levels and teaching outcomes. In 2015, the Teaching Advancement Project of Teacher Cooperation and Problem-Solving Competency was promoted, so as to contend with the international world, and to cultivate talented individuals of the 21st century with the key soft power. In addition, in 2016, the Teacher Adaptive Instruction Teaching Literacy and Support Platform was promoted, which aimed to enhance the professional literacy of adaptive instructions and digital technology teaching. This support platform assists teachers in having a good knowledge of students’ learning requirements, and thus they should be able to conduct appropriate and efficient teaching programs.

   In 2017, in accordance with the implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education Curriculum Guidelines in the academic year 108, the teacher advancement courses for increased technology fields, the in-service teacher advanced courses, and the second-expertise courses for in-services teachers were carried out. The Teacher Training Platform Project of ‘Natural Science Research and Practice’ Course Development in 12-Year Basic Education has been promoted, which combines internet communities and educational resources and develops teachers’ profession development routes from beginner teachers to experienced teacher levels. The Teachers’ Professional Development Support System has been promoted from three aspects:
1. the integration of all teachers’ professional development projects and resources,
2. the cooperation between teacher education universities, city or county governments, and teachers in high schools,
3. the provision of teachers’ diverse autonomous professional development routes at different career stages.

The Promotion of the Teachers’ Professional Development Support System
   To refine the in-service teacher training system in primary, junior high, and senior high schools, the Teachers’ Professional Development Support System has been promoted. In the academic year 106, the Ministry of Education transformed the Teachers’ Professional Development Evaluation Project into the Teachers’ Professional Development Fulfillment Program. On August 11, 2017, the Regulations of the MOE Providing Subsidies for Implementing the Teachers’ Professional Development Evaluation Project were revised and announced in order to provide all city or county governments with subsidization in using financial resources flexibly and autonomously to further organize the city- or county-centered teachers’ professional development projects. The purposes of this Teachers’ Professional Development Support System are as follows:
1. assisting city or county governments to establish a teachers’ professional development area network, and to set up a guidance system,
2. providing teachers in different career stages with diverse autonomous professional development routes, which support autonomous learning professional communities from initial teacher to experienced teacher levels,
3. encouraging city and county governments, primary schools, junior high schools, senior high schools, teacher education universities, and private organizations to build teachers’ professional partner relationships, so as to deepen teachers’ professional developments in local places and in practical teaching affairs.

The Announcement of the Teachers’ Professional Standard Guidelines of the Republic of China
   On February 15, 2016, the Teachers’ Professional Standard Guidelines of the Republic of China was announced, with the following planning directions: consulting the global standards, and organizing comprehensively in accordance with conditions in local places. These guidelines continue the 10 major teachers’ professional development standards and 29 teachers’ professional performance indicators published in the Teacher Cultivation White Paper of the Republic of China. Following the ideal image of teachers in our nation, published in the aforementioned White Paper, the 10 major teachers’ professional development standards are as follows: research on educational professions, teaching pedagogy, instructional design, teaching operation, learning evaluation, class management, student counseling and guidance, professional growth, professional responsibility, and collaborative leadership. Anticipation of these standards is expected to assist teachers to attain these goals:
1. to manifest teachers’ professionalism, and to shape teachers’ cultivation and the required abilities for teachers at all development stages,
2. to demonstrate the expectation of our nation for teachers’ professional knowledge, skills, and attitude,
3. to guide teacher cultivation and teachers’ professional development.

最後更新日: 2019/11/19


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