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友善列印

 
技職教育 -Technical and Vocational Education
學制彈性化、招生多元化、課程自主化
  技職教育的發展,在學制方面:56年配合九年國民教育的實施,停辦初級職校與五年制高職,改設高職,招收國中畢業生,修業3年。80年代逐步廢除三年制專科,輔導改制學院或技術學院;85學年度起輔導績優專科學校改制技術學院並附設專科部、技術學院改名科技大學等。在招生方面:推動技(藝)能優良學生保送甄試大專校院、在職班考試加計工作年資及證照加分、89學年度起取消高職聯招考試入學、90學年度起配合教改推動考招分離政策、實施〈高職及五專多元入學方案〉、〈技專校院多元入學方案〉等。在課程方面:技職學校類科眾多,專業科目亦甚龐雜,隨著社會變遷與經濟成長,課程由早期單位行業、群集課程、到近期推動學校本位課程發展的理念,並於94年2月公布〈職業學校群科課程暫行綱要〉,97年12月修正發布〈職業學校群科課程綱要〉,並自99年8月起實施,101年11月配合十二年國民基本教育啟動課綱微調機制。專科以上學校則依〈專科學校法〉及〈大學法〉精神,透過補助各校建立系科本位課程發展機制,授權學校自訂。

制定公布〈技術及職業教育法〉

  104年1月14日總統公布〈技術及職業教育法〉,重點有(一)責成各級主管機關配合辦理技職教育有關事務。(二)使技職教育向下扎根,逐漸改變國人重學術輕技職之傳統士大夫觀念。(三)技職教育課程銜接機制。(四)強化技職校院教師實務教學能力,縮短學用落差。

強化產學合作 培育產業人才
  教育部為使技專校院瞭解產業需求,促使各技專校院及產業間能有良好之媒合機會,自91年起成立6所「教育部區域產學合作中心」,成為技專校院與產業間的重要聯繫平臺,107年起規劃由原有「教育部區域產學合作中心」轉型為建置「教育部促進產學連結合作育才平臺」,以推動產業與學校協作實務教學與實作學習,促進產學需求媒合及深化交流合作,共同培育優質專業技術人才。未來將透過育才平臺針對各產業人才及課程參與或實務課程需求,協助媒合技專校院與產業共同開設各類型人才培育計畫或合作辦理學生校外實習課程,協助廠商即早投入人才培育的行列。

  另為推動學生實作扎根,教育部引導學校結合產業共同規劃問題導向設計之實務課程,提升學生跨域學習及實務專業技術能力,並鼓勵學校開設校外實習課程,增進學生體驗職場與實務學習,期建立正確工作態度及具有業界實務經驗之專業人才。

  此外,推動產學合作的培育模式,鼓勵技專校院與產業建立人才共育機制,推動〈產學攜手合作計畫〉及〈產業學院計畫〉,由產業與學校量身打造專班學程,為產業儲備人才。

打造實用技職 強化學用合一
  為配合國家產業發展重點,縮短產學落差,教育部於99年至101年推動〈第一期技職教育再造方案〉,在「強化務實致用特色發展」及「落實培育技術人力角色」之定位下,從「制度」、「師資」、「課程與教學」、「資源」、「品管」5個面向訂定10個策略實施,已初步達成「改善師生教學環境、強化產學實務連結、培育優質專業人才」之目標。

  又為落實經濟動能推升方案,平衡國內人力供需,以及回應外界對技職教育的期待,於奠基第一期技職教育再造方案之基礎上,參考先進國家作法,自102至106年賡續推動〈第二期技職教育再造計畫〉,結合產、官、學、研資源建立一致性之技職教育發展策略,培育產業發展所需的優質專業技術人力。計畫包括「制度調整」(政策統整、系科調整、實務選才)、「課程活化」(課程彈性、設備更新、實務增能)及「就業促進」(就業接軌、創新創業、證能合一)等3大面向9項策略。期望緊密鏈結產業需求,培育高職、專科、科技校院畢業生都具有立即就業的能力,充分提供產業發展所需的優質技術人力,以及改變社會對技職教育的觀點,落實技職教育政策一體化,提升技職教育整體競爭力。

公告〈技術及職業教育政策綱領〉
  行政院於106年3月2日公告〈技術及職業教育政策綱領〉,提供3大目標及6大推動方向,供中央及地方各級政府作為規劃技職教育政策的圭臬,以培養具備實作力、創新力及就業力之專業技術人才的技職教育願景。

推動優化技職校院實作環境
  配合政府創新產業發展政策及各項前瞻計畫所需人才,以及因應國內外新產業與新技術之發展,以〈技職教育再造計畫〉為基礎,推動〈優化技職校院實作環境計畫〉,以「建置跨院系實作場域」、「建置產業菁英訓練基地」及「培育類產業環境人才」3項策略,投入教學設備與建置實習場域,並與產業共構實務導向課程及資源共享機制,培養具有跨領域、符應國際產業發展脈絡的技職人才。

推動〈青年教育與就業儲蓄帳戶方案〉
  為鼓勵18歲高級中等學校應屆畢業生探索自我,透過職場、學習及國際等體驗,累積多元經驗,並更清楚自己未來目標,教育部於106年推出〈青年教育與就業儲蓄帳戶方案〉,以〈青年就業領航計畫〉搭配「青年儲蓄帳戶」(職場體驗)及〈青年體驗學習計畫〉(學習及國際體驗)。〈青年就業領航計畫〉由教育部及勞動部每月分別補助5,000元,至多3年,作為青年未來就業、就學或創業之用;〈青年體驗學習計畫〉則透過國內外志願服務、壯遊探索、達人見習、創業見習等學習類型,訓練青年企劃能力,探索並確立人生方向。

健全學校校外實習機制及強化實習生權益保障
  教育部於106年9月22日修訂〈專科以上學校產學合作實施辦法〉,將學校辦理校外實習課程應負責督導保障學生權益事項納入規範。另配合〈技術及職業教育法〉將學校辦理校外實習課程納入規範,並應接受教育部定期實習課程績效評量,且應為大專校院校外實習學生辦理團體保險,保障實習生遭遇災害時獲得協助。後續教育部為持續精進學校推動校外實習機制及落實實習權益保障,將研訂實習專法,將實習生之權益

The Flexible Education System, Diverse Ways of Recruitment, and Autonomous Courses
  Regarding the education system of technical and vocational education development:
- In accordance with the operation of the 9-Year Compulsory Education system in 1967, the operations of Primary Vocational Schools and Five-Year Vocational High Schools ceased, and were transformed into vocational high schools, and these schools recruited students graduating from junior high schools. The study period at these vocational high schools was 3 years.
- In the 1990s’, 3-Year Junior Colleges ceased and their structures were altered into colleges or technical colleges.
- In the academic year 85, the Ministry of Education guided junior colleges with excellent performance to transform into technical colleges, with attached junior colleges; the titles of these technical colleges were renamed universities of technology.

  Regarding the recruitment for technical and vocational education:
- Promotion of direct admissions for students with significant achievements and admissions for applications of students with significant achievements into colleges.
- Students with working experience and professional qualifications received supplementary points on their entrance exams for in-service education programs.
- In the academic year 89, the Joint-Board of Vocational High School Recruitment ceased.
- In the academic year 90, in accordance with the education reform, the policy to separate examinations and recruitment was promoted; the Multi-admission Program for Senior High and Vocational High Schools and the Multi-admission Program for Technical and Vocational Universities and Colleges were implemented.

  Regarding the courses of technical and vocational education:
- The categories and subjects, as well as the professional subjects, in vocational education are multiple and complex. In the past, as social changes and economic growth progressed, Unit Trade Training System and Cluster Programs were changed in accordance with the development of the school curriculum.
- In February 2005, the Temporary Curriculum Guidelines of Cluster Programs in Vocational Schools were announced.
- In December 2008, the Curriculum Guidelines of Cluster Programs in Vocational Schools were announced after revision. These went into effect in August 2010.
- The modified system of the Curriculum Guidelines of Cluster Programs in Vocational Schools were in operation in November 2012, in accordance with 12-Year Basic Education.
- According to the Junior College Act, and the University Act, the Ministry of Education assisted vocational colleges, and technical and vocational universities in their school and department-oriented course development. Schools were authorized to decide their courses.

The Establishment and Announcement of the Technical and Vocational Education Act
  The Technical and Vocational Education Act was announced by the President on January 14, 2015. The focal points of this Act include:
I. Certain designated authorities at all levels should cooperate in affairs relating to Technical and Vocational Education.
II. Rooting the deep-seated cultivation of technical and vocational education is to change the viewpoint of our society away from an emphasis on academic subjects and the scholar-bureaucratic culture.
III. The transition of the technical and vocational education system.
IV. Strengthening teachers’ practical teaching abilities, for the purpose of reducing the gap between theoretical learning and practical purposes.

The Ministry of Education strengthens the cooperation between institutions and industries, in order to cultivate talented students in industrial fields.
  In 2002, to assist vocational colleges to better understand the requirements of industry and enhance the matching of opportunities between each vocational college and relevant industry, the Ministry of Education founded 6 MOE industry-academia collaboration centers in various areas which created an important platform for connections between vocational colleges and industries. Since 2018, the MOE industry-academia collaboration centers in various areas were altered into the establishment of the MOE industry-academia collaboration and talent cultivation promotional platform, in order to:
1. Promote practical teaching and learning through industry-academia collaboration,
2. Increase deep exchanges and cooperation between schools and industries in order to match talented students with industry’s requirements
3. Cultivate together talented students with professional technical skills.
Through this platform of cultivation, which contains the course participation and practical curriculum requirements for talents in all industries, the MOE has assisted vocational colleges and industries in student cultivation projects of all types of professions, implemented off-campus internships for students, and assisted companies to devote themselves to talent cultivation.

  To promote the foundation of student hands-on-practice, the Ministry of Education guides schools and industries to collaborate and develop a problem-based curriculum, designed for practical purposes. In turn, students’ abilities in interdisciplinary learning and their practical professional technical skills may be further developed. Institutions are encouraged to establish off-campus internships or courses to fortify student experiences in future workplaces and to give students more opportunities to learn a practical curriculum. It is hoped that professional talents may be cultivated with a positive working attitude and that students gain practical experience so as to be equipped with competencies required by industrial sectors.

  In addition, the Ministry of Education has promoted the talent cultivation model of industry-academia, encouraged colleges and universities to establish the talent cultivation model in industry-academia collaboration, and supported both the industry-academia hand-in-hand collaboration project, and the industrial academic college project. Thus, industries and institutions are inspired to organize specific programs to cultivate and retain more talent.

The Ministry of Education develops practical technical and vocational education, in order to reinforce the combination of learning and application.
  To minimize the gap between learning and application of learning, and in accordance with the focus points of national development, in 2010 to 2012, the Ministry of Education promoted the first session of the program for rebuilding technical and vocational education. The objectives of this program were to strengthen practical applications, to develop the particular or specific features, and to carry out talent development in technical skills. 10 strategies were set up and were operated from five dimensions: the system, teachers, curriculum and teaching, resources, and quality control. Up till now, three goals have been achieved from 2010 to 2012: improving the teaching environment for students and teachers, strengthening the concrete connection between schools and industries, and cultivating professional quality talents.

  In addition, to undertake the Economic Power-up Plan, to balance the human resources requirements and supply in our nation, and to respond to the expectation of technical and vocational education from all sectors of our society, the second session of the program for rebuilding technical and vocational education was continuously promoted from 2013 to 2017. This program was founded on the basis of the first session of the program for rebuilding technical and vocational education. Methods of other developed nations were also referenced. Coherent technical and vocational education development strategies were thus settled through the resources from government, industries, schools and research centers to cultivate professional quality talents that met the requirements of industrial development. This program included three dimensions and nine strategies:
Dimension1: System adjustment (strategies 1-3: policy coordination, department adjustment, practical selection of talented students).
Dimension 2: Course activation (strategies 4-6: flexible courses, updated facilities, advancement of competencies through practical experience).
Dimension 3: Employment expansion (strategies 7-9: seamless integration to employment, innovative entrepreneurship, combination of competencies and qualifications).
The following purposes were expected to be achieved: a close connection between institutions and industrial requirements, cultivation of employability for students in vocational high schools, colleges, and technical and vocational colleges and universities, a sufficient supply of capable human resources to meet the needs of industrial development, changes in viewpoint from sectors of our society about technical and vocational education, implementation and integration of technical and vocational education policy, and a competitiveness boost in technical and vocational education.

The Announcement of the Technical and Vocational Education Policy Guidelines
  On March 2, 2017, the Executive Yuan announced the Technical and Vocational Education Policy Guidelines, which provided three major goals and six main promotional directions, as the standards for planning technical and vocational education policies for central and local authorities. These guidelines were expected to accomplish the vision of cultivating professional technical talent with practical skills, innovative competencies, and employability through technical and vocational education.

The promotion of a refined environment for technical practices in technical and vocational colleges
  In accordance with the policy for Innovative Industry Development from our government and the requirements of talented people for all Foresight Projects, and to respond to the development of new industries and technical skills both from our nation and other foreign countries, the rebuilding program for technical and vocational education was the foundation to promote the project of the refined environment for technical practices in technical and vocational colleges. This project contains three strategies: to establish an interdisciplinary practical environment for technical practices, to establish a training foundation for cultivating elite students in future industries, and finally to cultivate talent for quasi-industrial environments. By investing in educational facilities, environments in which to practice technical skills industrial practical orientated courses, and in resources for shared systems; it is hoped that interdisciplinary talents with professional technical skills may be trained and educated to finally meet the development needs of international industries.

The promotion of the Youth Education and Employment Savings Account Program
  To encourage students, who graduate from senior high schools at the age of 18, to explore opportunities for themselves, to obtain more experience from the workplace, further studies, and the international world, and also to have a better understanding of their future goals, the Ministry of Education proposed the Youth Education and Employment Savings Account Program in 2017. This program comprises two projects: the Youth Employment Pilot Project and the Youth Experience Learning Project. The former is attached with a Youth Savings Account (for assisting young people to obtain experience from the workplace). The latter is for the purpose of assisting youth to gain learning experience and other experience in relation to the international world. In the Youth Employment Pilot Project, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labor provide in total NT$ 10,000 every month, for a maximum period of 3 years, for use toward youths’ employment, learning, or entrepreneurship. The Youth Experience Learning Project allows youth to explore the world, gain experience from experts in all fields, and/or participate in entrepreneur internships via volunteer services in our nation or other foreign countries. Youth may train their abilities of management and explore and assure their directions in life.

The Complete School and Off-campus Internship System and the Strengthening of the Rights of Interns
  On September 22, 2017, the Ministry of Education revised the implementation regulations for the industry-academia collaboration in junior colleges or higher-level institutions, which included addressing the issue of institutions carrying out off-campus internships and guaranteeing students’ rights. In accordance with the Technical and Vocational Education Act, the related regulations of schools implementing off-campus internships have been included. Schools should accept regular internship courses evaluated by the Ministry of Education, and apply for group insurance for college students participating in off-campus internships to ensure that students will receive assistance in case of any accidental encounters. Hence, the Ministry of Education will guarantee student rights into the status of law by establishing a specific law, to both continuously refine the procedures of off-campus internships in institutions and to ensure students’ rights during internships.

最後更新日: 2019/11/19


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