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友善列印

 
多元入學 -Multi-Opportunities for School Entrance
推動各項多元入學方案
  國內高級中等以上學校入學辦理聯合招生已久,幾乎成為各級畢業生入學的唯一管道,其公平、公正與公開的制度,普受社會的信賴;對學校而言,更是便捷招收學生的制度。但長久以來也產生許多負面的影響,例如學校教育目標受到扭曲、考試領導教學、學生失去創造力、無法適性育才選才及試務經驗無法傳承等現象。準此,要突破單一升學方式,而又要維持招生公平及省事的優點,多元入學理念適時地給予一個嶄新的思考方向。

  教育部陸續推動各項多元入學方案,包括〈高中及高職多元入學方案〉、〈技專校院多元入學方案〉(兩者均自90學年度起實施)及〈大學多元入學方案〉(自91學年度起實施)。多元入學方案基本理念在於「考招分離─考試專業化、招生多元化」,一方面讓「考試」由專責機構辦理,可就命題進行持續研究,使試題不僅具有評量功能,更能兼顧學校的教與學;另一方面讓「招生」方式多元化,包含考試登記分發、甄選入學、申請入學及免試入學等,其原則由各校自主,選擇適當招生管道,使各校(系科)得依特色訂定招生條件,招收適才適所的學生。此外,「多元入學」並非要求每個學生都需具備多元能力,或是參加每項升學管道以增加入學機率,而是提供學生更多突顯個人特質與潛力的機會,可以適性地選擇升學管道。

改進入學管道
  鑒於原先多元入學管道較為複雜,因此教育部已朝簡單公平方向改進。另為增進學生寫作與語文表達能力,國民中學學生基本學力測驗(以下簡稱國中基測)於95年試辦寫作測驗,96年正式實施並作為升學依據。自99年起增加免試入學管道,學生不需參加國中基測,即可進入高級中等學校或五專就讀,且配合免試入學擴大辦理,自101年起國中基測由2次調整為1次,103年起十二年國民基本教育全面實施,入學管道以免試入學為主,特色招生為輔,並停止實施國中基測。特色招生分為術科甄選及學科考試分發入學,希望透過免試入學引導教學正常化,舒緩國中升學壓力;而特色招生入學則希望可以透過發展特色課程促進教育創新。

  為瞭解並確保國民中學學生學力品質,依據〈國民小學及國民中學學生成績評量準則〉第13條規定,由教育部會同直轄市、縣(市)政府自103年起辦理國中教育會考。國中教育會考考試科目包含國文、英語(含聽力)、數學(含非選擇題)、社會、自然及寫作測驗,以〈國民中小學九年一貫課程綱要〉能力指標為命題依據。各科評量結果分為「精熟」、「基礎」及「待加強」3個等級;寫作測驗評分方式採級分制,分為一級分至六級分。

  十二年國民基本教育在國中階段首重教學正常化,幫助學生五育均衡發展,開展多元智能,發展自己的優勢能力。為輔導國中學生適性發展,多年來更致力推動國中生涯發展及技藝教育,期望協助學生瞭解自身的特性及外在世界,依照自己的興趣、性向及能力來決定學習之路。

  在高級中等教育階段,十二年國民基本教育關照「普及」、「菁英」及「弱勢關懷」3大面向。提供所有國中畢業生就學機會,並透過免試及特色招生等多元的入學方式,協助不同性向的學生都能找到適合自己的路,成為各領域的菁英,達到適性揚才的目標。

  有關各界關注之高級中等學校入學方式,自103學年度起,國中畢業生升學高級中等學校及五專,以免試入學為主要入學管道,各就學區提供至少75%以上之招生名額,至108學年度提生至85%以上,提供部分學生透過學科或術科考試進入高級中等學校或五專就讀,讓學生有展現其不同優勢能力的機會。不論是免試或考試,都希望導引學生朝其性向、興趣及能力發展。

  為促進區域教育機會均等,鼓勵學生就近入學,或照顧弱勢學生就學權益,自104學年度起,教育部逐年擴大辦理優先免試入學。查〈高級中等學校多元入學招生辦法〉第6條第2項規定:「為促進區域教育機會均等,鼓勵就近入學,或照顧弱勢學生就學權益,就學區之直轄市、縣(市)主管機關會商區內學校各主管機關,於衡酌國民中學校數、畢業班數或人數等因素後,得於前項第1款免試入學作業要點中訂定學生優先免試入學之實施方式。」爰教育部規定各就學區如辦理優先免試入學者,應於各該區免試入學作業要點明定;至其操作模式及實施方式,各區得據上開規定本權責訂定因地制宜之方案。教育部將持續鼓勵就學區推動優先免試,逐年提升優先免試名額比率,促進區域教育機會均等、鼓勵就近入學及照顧弱勢學生就學權益。

  在升大學部分,93學年度簡化為考試分發與甄選入學(含個人申請與學校推薦)兩途。為實現「高中均質、區域均衡」理念,自96學年度起推動〈大學繁星計畫〉,100學年度起與學校推薦整併為「大學繁星推薦」,將各高中學生在校學業成績排名百分比視為等值,凡通過大學各學系之學科能力測驗檢定標準,以「高中在校成績百分比」作為優先排比順序,百分比小者優先錄取。而配合108學年度中小學新生將適用十二年國民基本教育新課綱,普通高中課程架構朝向減少共同必修、增加適性選修、適性分組的差異化課程、核心素養導向教學與學生自主學習的彈性課程方向規劃,未來大學招生勢必不能僅依賴共同學科考試成績作為選才標準,因此〈大學多元入學方案〉自111學年度起將以「申請入學」為主要招生管道並強化「多資料參採、重視學習歷程」方式選才,除入學考試成績外,將更重視考生在校之修課歷程及多元表現。

  在升技專校院部分,自90學年度起實施技專校院考招分離制度,主要招生管道有甄選入學、聯合登記分發、技優保送入學、技優甄審入學、四技申請入學聯合招生及技職繁星等入學管道。104學年度起技職繁星則以在校學業成績前30%及符合校內遴選辦法者,由各校推薦10名符合資格學生,在不以紙筆測驗選才之前提,以「在校學業成績群名次百分比」,作為排名比序項目及分發之依據,以每校錄取同一高職(含綜高)學生,至多3名為原則,落實校校等值目標。自106學年度起各校推薦由10名調增為12名。另106學年度起推動〈技專校院精進甄選入學實務選才擴大招生名額比例計畫〉,藉由增加實作測驗(例如術科實作、面試、專題實作),引導技術型高中師生重視養成學生實務能力,並限制統測成績占比以50%為限。

Promotion of Diverse Multi-Admission Programs
  The Joint-Board Schools Recruitment to senior high schools was in effect for decades, and was the only school entry path for students graduating from all levels of schools. This fair and open system did elicit a considerable measure of trust in society; it was also a convenient recruitment system for schools. However, the Joint-Board Recruitment had also led to several negative influences for quite a long time, for instance: the educational objectives of schools were distorted, teaching was dominated by the need to pass examinations, students were losing their creativity, student cultivation and selection systems lacked coherence with students’ nature, and the experiences in organizing and implementing the examination system could not be readily passed on. Therefore, the brand new concept of multi-admission programs offered a fresh and timely way of thinking, and a variety of new methods were introduced, replacing the single school entry path, while also maintaining its advantages of fairness and simplified procedure.

  The Ministry of Education has promoted and introduced each multi-admission program progressively, including the Multi-admission Program for Senior High and Vocational High School, the Multi-admission Program for Technical and Vocational University and College (both were initiated from the academic year 90), and the Multi-admission Program for University (implemented from the academic year 91). The basic concept of multi-admission programs is the separation of exams and recruitment, which is designed to achieve both professional exam success and diverse ways of secondary and tertiary education recruitment. On one hand, exams are administered by professional organizations, to ensure that professional research into exam design is in coherence with functions of teaching and learning, and not just evaluation. On the other hand, the advantages of the multi-admission programs are to create more diverse ways of recruitment for secondary and tertiary education, including the Admission by School Registration and Placement System, the Admission by School Recommendation and Candidate Application, the Admission by Personal Application, as well as Exam-free Admission. Schools can decide their preferred ways of recruitment among these four aforementioned admission methods, in order to allow schools to set up their own criteria for recruitment according to each schools’ particular features, and to select students whose interests and characteristics are most relevant to those schools’ features. Additionally, multi-admission programs do not imply that every student should be equipped with various competences, nor do they mean that participating in every path of admission can increase the probability of succeeding in being admitted. As an alternative, they provide more opportunities for students to reveal their own personal characteristics and potential, so as to enable them to choose their own way of entering a school.

Improvement of School Entry Paths
  Since the introduction of multi-admission programs, entering a school has become more complex, and thus the MOE has embarked on a revision with the goals of simplification and fairness. In addition, in order to improve essay writing skills and language production competences, an essay writing exam (Chinese) was first included in the exam subjects of the Basic Competence Test for Junior High School Students (BCTJHSS) in the academic year 95, and this exam was included in the evaluation evidence of BCTJHSS from the academic year 96. Exam-free Admission was introduced in the academic year 99; that is to say, students could enter senior high schools or vocational high schools without participation in the BCTJHSS. In order to expand the scale of Exam-free Admission, the BCTJHSS was reduced from being offered twice a year to just once a year starting in the academic year 101. The 12-Year Basic Education was fully implemented, beginning in academic year 103, and the school entry path became mainly based on exam-free admission, with the Selective School and Student Recruitment in second place. The BCTJHSS ceased to be offered. The Selective School and Student Recruitment contains the Technical and Skill-based Exam and Enrollment and Placement by Academic Exam. It is expected that through exam-free admission, teaching can correspond to the related regulations, and relax junior high school students’ pressure of taking entry exams. Besides, it is hoped that the Selective School and Student Recruitment both achieve the development of featured courses and promotion of innovative education.

  In order to understand and ensure the quality of junior high school students’ academic competence, the Ministry of Education, and all city and county governments, have started to carry out the Comprehensive Assessment Program for Junior High School Students since the academic year 103, according to Regulation 13 in the Evaluation Standard of Primary and Junior High School Students’ Grades. The exam subjects of the Comprehensive Assessment Program for Junior High School Students include: Chinese, English (including an English listening test), Mathematics (including non-multiple-choice questions), Social Studies, Natural Science and Writing Assessment (Chinese). These exams are conducted based on the Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines. The evaluation results for each subject are divided into three levels: Mastered, Basic, Need to be strengthened. The evaluation measure of the Writing Assessment is by grades, from grade one to grade six.

  The most important goal of the junior high school stage in the 12-Year Basic Education is to ensure that the teaching corresponds to the related regulations, and that students are assisted in their development in the moral, intellectual, physical, social and aesthetic fields (also named as the 5 Ways of Life). These fields are designed, taught and expected to assist students to develop their intelligence and competences, so that they can seek and determine their advantages in life. With the purpose of guiding junior high students to develop by their own nature, the Ministry of Education has devoted itself to promoting career development and vocational education. Students are encouraged to decide their own learning paths relevant to their particular interests, characteristics and competences, through understanding their own unique features and their roles in society.

  In the stage of senior secondary education (senior high schools and vocational high schools), the 12-Year Basic Education emphasizes three dimensions: universality, elites, and the care of students in need. Through the Exam-free Admission, the Selective School and Student Recruitment, and other diverse school entry paths, all students graduating from junior high schools are offered the opportunities to study; and students with various features and characteristics should be able to find their own paths, and to become elite in their different fields. Thus, the goal can be finally achieved: nurture students by their own nature.

  With the attention of all sectors of our society focused on senior high schools entry paths, since the academic year 103, the major school entry path is the Exam-free Admission for junior high school graduate students entering into senior high schools and five-year colleges. Each school enrollment administration zone should provide at least 75% of the student enrollment number, and this should be increased to 85% in the academic year 108. Some students may participate in technical and skill-based exams, or academic exams, to enter into senior high schools or five-year colleges, so that students may have opportunities to express their diverse advantageous competences. No matter whether it is exam-free admission, or with exams, we expect to guide students to their goals based on their own personal interests, characteristics and competences.

  For the purpose of equal opportunities in education, and caring for equal opportunities for students in need, all students are encouraged to enter schools located nearby where they live. The Ministry of Education has expanded the implementation of the exam-free admission as a priority every year. According to Paragraph 2, Article 6 of the Recruitment Regulation of the Multi-admission Programs for Senior High School: “To enhance equal opportunities in education in each school enrollment administration zone, to encourage students to study in schools nearby their residence, and to ensure the rights of physically or mentally challenged students to accept education, the competent authorities in municipalities, counties or cities should firstly negotiate with the competent authorities of the school enrollment administration zones. Subsequent consideration by these authorities of the numbers of junior high schools, graduating classes, and graduating students, should result in the implementation of appropriate measures to achieve the priority of exam-free admission in the regulations of exam-free administration (Item 1, Paragraph 1, Article 6).” Therefore, the Ministry of Education has stipulated that school enrollment administration zones, with the intention to implement the priority exam-free admission, should stipulate the aforementioned contents in the regulations of exam-free administration. Each school enrollment administration zone, by their own authority, may regulate their own programs of the implementation models and measures according to the local condition in each zone. The Ministry of Education has continuously encouraged the school enrollment administration zones to promote the priority exam-free admission, and it has gradually increased the priority exam-free admission percentage every year so as to boost equal opportunities in education in each school enrollment administration zone, to encourage students to study in schools nearby their residence, and to ensure the rights of physically or mentally challenged students to accept education.

  Regarding the entry path to university, in the academic year 93, these were simplified into two ways using the Admission by School Registration and Placement System, and the Admission by School Recommendation and Candidate Application (the latter includes Admission by Personal Application and Admission by School Recommendation). In order to realize the ideal of “quality learning of each senior high school; equalization between cities and counties”, the University Admission by the Constellation Program was promoted from the academic year 96; and then it was combined with the Admission by School Recommendation into University Admission by the Constellation Recommendation Program. That is to say, senior high school students’ academic results rankings are calculated into averages and shown as notes in percentages. Students who pass the standards of the subject competence test regulated by each department of each university can participate in the Admission by the Constellation Recommendation Program. Their percentage of academic scores in senior high schools will be arranged in rank order, and thus, students who have a small percentage of their academic score will be enrolled by universities in the first round. On the other hand, to be in line with the new curriculum guideline of the 12-year basic education for primary and junior high students studying from the academic year 108, the curriculum guideline for standard senior high schools will contain fewer common required subjects, and more optional classes for students to choose as they wish. Furthermore, the adaptive instruction of different study groups, core literacy-orientation teaching, and flexible courses for students’ independent learning will be included in the planning orientation of the curriculum guideline. The common academic subject exam cannot be the only selection standard of future university admission. Hence, the major entry path will be the Admission by Personal Application of the Multi-admission Program in the academic year 111. Multiple documentations of students’ learning processes will be strengthened as a selection path. In addition to the score of the entrance exam, the students’ performance and learning in diverse subjects will be emphasized.

  Regarding the entry path to vocational colleges, the separation of exams and recruitment of vocational colleges was implemented in the academic year 90. Currently, the main recruitment paths are as follows: Admission by School Recommendation and Candidate Application, Admission by School Registration and Placement System, Direct Admission for Special Achievement Students, Admission by Application of Special Achievement Students, Comprehensive Four-Year College Recruitment, and College Admission by the Constellation Recommendation Program. Since the academic year 104, the College Admission by the Constellation Recommendation Program aims at recruiting students whose academic score percentage in senior high school is in the top 30% and recommended by their schools. Schools may only recommend 10 qualified students. In order to reach a balance in each school, each vocational college can only recruit a maximum of 3 students from the same senior high school according to their academic score percentage, without implementation of paper-pencil tests. The academic score percentage is the evidence of rank order, and students’ order of vocational college placement. Since the academic year 106, senior high schools can recommend 12 qualified students to enter vocational colleges. In addition, the Student Ratio for the Recruitment Expansion Project for the Advancement of Technical College Admission by Performance Exams was promoted in the academic year 106. With the increase in Performance Exams (for example, Technical and Skill-based Performance Exam, Recruitment Interview, Project Research Performance Exam), and by ensuring the results of these exams are limited as the reference maximum to 50% in the Comprehensive Four-Year & Two-Year Junior College Entrance Exam, it is hoped that teachers and students in vocational high schools may emphasize the cultivation of students’ competence in practical skills and techniques.

最後更新日: 2019/11/19


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