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友善列印

 
國民教育 -Education for Primary and Junior High School Students
實施九年國民義務教育
  中央政府遷臺初期,義務教育僅限於國小階段的6年。為消除升學壓力及有感於教育對國家建設之重要,自57年起,推動九年國民教育。推動之初,以增班設校、師資訓練,以及提高學童就學率為發展重點。71年總統修正公布〈強迫入學條例〉,使我國正式進入九年國民義務教育的新里程。

推動國教發展計畫

  我國自57年起實施九年國民教育以來,教育部連續執行多項國教發展計畫,強化軟硬體建設。首先為〈九年國民教育第一期三年計畫〉(58~60年度),嗣後相繼實施〈九年國民教育第二期三年計畫〉(61~63年度)、〈發展與改進國民教育五年計畫〉(66~70年度)、〈發展與改進國民教育六年計畫〉(72~77年度)、〈發展與改進國民教育第二期計畫〉(78~81年度)、〈校務發展計畫〉(82~83年度)、〈整建國中與國小教育設施計畫〉(84~89年度)、〈振興經濟擴大公共建設投資-加速國中小老舊校舍及相關設備補強整建計畫〉(98~100年度)、〈101年國中小校舍耐震能力評估、補強及設施設備改善計畫〉、〈102至105年度補助國民中小校舍耐震能力評估、補強及設施設備改善計畫〉、〈公立國中小校舍耐震能力及設施設備改善計畫(106-108年度)〉。復自85年度起推動〈教育優先區計畫〉,對相對弱勢地區學校給予積極性差別待遇的資源輔助,逐步落實教育機會均等理想。

  另為發揮小班教學「多元化、個別化及適性化」的精神及功能,進而提升教學品質,自87年度起開始執行〈降低國民中小學班級學生人數計畫〉,國小自87學年度起至92學年度止,逐年降至每班35人,國中自91學年度起至93學年度逐年降至每班38人,至96學年度止,每班降至35人。

  96學年度起實施〈國民小學班級學生人數調降方案〉,國小一年級自96學年度起以32人編班,逐年降低1人,至99學年度降至每班29人。另外國小全校未達9班學生51人以上小校,增置教師員額1人。

  98學年度起實施〈國民中學階段精緻國教發展方案〉,國中一年級自98學年度起以34人編班,逐年降低1人,至102學年度降至每班30人。另外國中21班以上學校,增置專任輔導教師員額1人。

  又為協助各地方政府落實〈國民小學與國民中學班級編制及教職員員額編制準則〉之規定,與回應教育現場針對「滿足學生學習節數」與「教師授課總節數」達到平衡之急迫需求,自105學年度起先採「外加代理教師員額方式,推動國小由每班教師員額編制1.65人提升至合理教師員額」方式,有效解決偏鄉小校人力不足及現場代課教師人數較多之問題。另於106學年度起擴大辦理〈國中1000專案〉,將國中增置教師人數擴增為1,000人,採補助全校36班以下之公立國中增置1至2名教師人力方式辦理,以提高教師專長授課比率,並透過跨校師資合聘制度,落實學校教師專長授課。

進行課程改革

  89年以前,我國國民教育階段的課程是依「課程標準」規定實施,並數度修訂。85年12月,行政院教育改革審議委員會公布〈教育改革總諮議報告書〉,依據該報告書之建議,教育部首先完成〈國民中小學九年一貫課程總綱綱要〉,確立七大學習領域名稱及課程架構,並決定以4年為期,自90學年度起,逐步實施九年一貫課程。嗣後公布〈國民中小學九年一貫課程暫行綱要〉,至92年11月止,公布各學習領域課程綱要。至此,課程綱要已取代課程標準,國家層級課程之形式與實質產生了巨大變革。因應十二年國民基本教育之實施,教育部業於103年11月28日發布〈十二年國民基本教育課程綱要總綱〉,以整合連貫高級中等以下學校課程。

引進外籍英語教師至國中小任教

  為加強偏遠地區學校英語師資、提供學生更自然豐富之英語學習環境,以及協助自94學年度起,英語教育向下延伸至國小三年級之政策,93年10月由教育部協助引進第1批外籍英語教師至國中小任教,截至107年止,引進超過1,096人次,未來並將持續於每年8月引進外師,以接續新學期的開始有穩定之教學與師資。

推動〈國民小學及國民中學補救教學實施方案〉

  為弭平學習落差,教育部102年將〈教育優先區計畫-學習輔導〉及〈攜手計畫-課後扶助〉2項計畫整合為〈國民小學及國民中學補救教學實施方案〉,並自105年起全面免除身分弱勢條件限制,凡是未通過補救教學篩選測驗的學生,都可以由學校依學生學力現況與需求,分科規劃補救教學課程,並以差異化教學及小班教學方式,提供及早即時、穩定持續之學習扶助資源,以幫助學生重拾學習自信,減緩與同儕的學力差距並穩固基本學力。

推動〈國民教育階段學生學習精進計畫〉

  為實踐看見每一位孩子進步的願景,104年起推動〈國民教育階段學生學習精進計畫〉,從學力監測及早改善、適性學習多元發展、專業強化創新實驗與教師熱情志工陪伴等面向,透過〈工具學科奠基方案〉、〈學生學習支持方案〉、〈教師專業增能方案〉3大方案之落實推動,及早奠基良好基礎,確保學生基本學力及發展學生多元能力。

健全實驗教育三法之法制環境

  103年11月陸續公布實驗教育三法(〈高級中等以下教育階段非學校型態實驗教育實施條例〉、〈學校型態實驗教育實施條例〉及〈公立國民小學及國民中學委託私人辦理條例〉),以落實〈教育基本法〉鼓勵政府及民間辦理教育實驗的精神。另為提供實驗教育更為友善之發展空間,以及延伸學校型態實驗教育至專科以上教育階段,105年起進行實驗教育三法之修法,並於107年1月31日經總統修正公布(〈高級中等以下教育階段非學校型態實驗教育實施條例〉、〈學校型態實驗教育實施條例〉及〈公立高級中等以下學校委託私人辦理實驗教育條例〉),期待能藉由修法回應教學現場需求,以及達到實驗教育永續發展之目標。

建立保障偏遠地區學校永續發展的法制

  於106年12月6日公布〈偏遠地區學校教育發展條例〉,透過強化偏遠地區學校教育措施、寬列經費、彈性運用人事及提高教師福利措施等方式,保障偏遠地區學校之學生受教權益。依本條例第4條規定,教育部於107學年度起已重新認定偏遠地區學校類型,又為執行本條例所定事項及協助非山非市學校教育發展,訂定「教育部補助偏遠地區學校及非山非市學校教育經費作業要點」,以協助學校及各直轄市、縣(市)政府依在地需求及特色,規劃提供學生及教師相關資源與活動,另輔以簡化經費申請行政流程等行政減量措施,希冀有助於解決學校辦學困境,進而促使校本創生及永續發展,並達弭平城鄉教育差距之政策目標。

The Implementation of Nine-Year Compulsory Education
   In the period just after the government moved to Taiwan in 1949, compulsory education was limited to primary school, consisting of 6 years of school. Since education plays an important role in national development, and with the goal of eliminating student pressure to enter schools, 9-year compulsory education was initiated in 1968. In the initial stage of the promotion, there was a focus on establishing schools, increasing classes, cultivating teachers, and enhancing student acceptance rates. In 1982, the president announced the Compulsory Education Act, which led our nation past a new milestone of a 9-year compulsory education system.

The Promotion of Compulsory Education Development Projects
   Since the implementation of the 9-year compulsory education system in 1968, the Ministry of Education has continuously carried out numerous compulsory education development projects to fortify the physical construction of, and related frameworks necessary for, each project. First was Session 1 of the Three-Year Project to Implement Nine-Year Compulsory Education (1967-1971). From then on, the following projects were implemented in succession:
- Session 2 of the Three-Year Project to Implement Nine-Year Compulsory Education (1972-1974)
- The Five-year Improvement and Development Project of Compulsory Education (1977-1981)
- The Six-year Improvement and Development Project of Compulsory Education (1983-1988)
- Session 2 of the Improvement and Development Project of Compulsory Education (1989-1992)
- The School Development Project (1993-1994)
- Primary and Junior High School Educational Facility Refurbishment Project (1995-2000)
- The Acceleration of Old School House Reinforcement and Refurbishment of Primary and Junior High Schools Subproject under the Revitalization of the Economy and Expansion of Public Construction Investment Project (2009-2011)
- The School House Earthquake-Resistant Evaluation, Reinforcement and Architectural Construction, and Facility Improvement in Primary and Junior High Schools Project of the year 2012
- The School House Earthquake-Resistant Evaluation, Reinforcement and Architectural Construction, and Facility Improvement in Primary and Junior High Schools Subsidy Project from 2013-2016
- The School House Earthquake-Resistant and Architectural Construction and Facility Improvement in Public Primary and Junior High Schools Project from 2017-2019.

  Since 1996, the Ministry of Education has continuously promoted the Educational Priority Areas Project, proactively providing disadvantaged schools with positive assistance in the form of additional resources, to realize the ideal of attaining equal opportunities in education.

  To elaborate on the various capacities, individualized nature, adaptive spirit, and functions of small class teaching, and thus to enhance the teaching quality, the Lowering of Student Numbers in Primary and Junior High School Classes Project was set in place in 1998. Each year the total student numbers in each class were gradually decreased to 35 students in primary schools during the period of the academic years 87-92. Similarly, each year the total student numbers in each class were gradually decreased to 38 in junior high schools during the period of the academic years 91-93; and by the academic year 96, the total student numbers in each class were decreased to 35.

  The Decrease of Student Numbers in Primary School Classes Program was established and carried out in the academic year 96, when the total student numbers in each class was set at 32 students, starting from grade one. In each following year, the total student numbers in each class was reduced by one, so that by the academic year 99, the total student numbers in each class had decreased to 29. In addition, small-scale primary schools with less than 9 classes, and also containing less than 51 students were offered an increase of one teacher.

  The Refining Compulsory Education in Junior High Schools Program was implemented in the academic year 98. In this year, starting from grade one of junior high schools, the class size was limited to 34 students per class. In each following year, the total student numbers in each class were reduced by one, so that by the academic year 102, the total student numbers in each class had decreased to 30. In addition, junior high schools which had more than 21 classes were offered an increase of one full-time teacher counselor.

  To assist each city or county government in implementing both the Criteria and regulations for class size and staffing in Primary and Junior High Schools, and to respond to the urgent requirement to reach a balance between the optimal total class numbers for student learning and each teacher’s total teaching number of classes, the following measures were adopted: to increase the average number of 1.65 teachers per class to a higher number, and also to raise the number of substitute teachers. These measures also resolved the issues pertaining to insufficient human resources and excessive number of substitute teachers in small-scale schools located in remote areas. The Junior High School 1,000 Project was widely implemented in the academic year 106. The total teacher number was increased by adding an additional 1,000 teachers in public junior high schools and by adding 1 to 2 teachers to public junior high schools which had less than 36 classes. In this way, the likelihood of teachers teaching subjects related to their expertise was increased. Through the Combination of Cross-School Teacher Resources Recruitment System, the objective of teachers teaching subjects related to their specialization was achieved.

The Implementation of Curriculum Reform
  Before the year 2000, compulsory education courses in our nation were applied in accordance with the regulations of the curriculum standards and were revised several times. In December 1996, the Education Reform Advisory Committee of the Executive Yuan announced the Consultants’ Concluding Report on Education Reform. Following the advice outlined in this report, the Ministry of Education first finalized Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines and established the 7 learning areas and the curriculum framework. It was decided that 4 years was the period of operation, and that the Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines were to be gradually introduced beginning in the academic year 90. Hence, the Temporary Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines were announced in November 2003, including the curriculum guidelines for all learning areas. These curriculum guidelines replaced the previous curriculum standards and marked a significant change in the form and substance of the courses regulated by our nation. To respond to the implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education system, the Ministry of Education announced the General Guidelines of the Curriculum Guidelines of 12-Year Basic Education , to be organized in unity with courses in primary, junior, and senior high schools.

The Introduction of Foreign English Teachers to Teach in Primary Schools
  To fortify the human resources required for English teachers in remote schools, to provide students with a spontaneous and effective English learning environment, and to also promote the policy of English education extension down to grade three in primary schools since the academic year 94, the Ministry of Education assisted in introducing the first batch of foreign English teachers to teach in primary and junior high schools in October 2004. There have been more than 1,096 foreign English teachers teaching in total from 2004 to 2018. The introduction of foreign teachers will continue in August every year, to maintain a stable supply of the human resources necessary for English education each new semester.

The Promotion of the Program to Implement Remedial Education in Primary and Junior High Schools
  To eliminate the learning gap, in 2013, the Ministry of Education combined the following two projects: Educational Priority Areas Project: Learning Guidance; and the Hand in Hand Project: After School Assistance and re-named this new entity: Remedial Education in Primary and Junior High Schools Implementation Program. Defining students by their needs was eliminated. Students who did not pass the selection exam for remedial education could participate in this program. Schools may plan remedial education courses for each subject, pertaining to each student’s learning conditions and requirements. Through adaptive instruction and small-class sizes, students are offered early, timely, stable and consecutive learning support resources. Consequently, students can regain their confidence. The learning gap between peers can be reduced; their basic academic competence can be ensured.

The Promotion of the Project of Students’ Mastery of Learning at Compulsory Education Stage
  To realize the vision of seeing every child make progress, the Students’ Mastery of Learning at the Compulsory Education Stage Project was promoted in 2015, and included the following dimensions: supervision and early improvement of student academic competence, student adaptive learning and diverse development, strengthening teachers’ professional knowledge, innovative measures in experimental education, developing teacher passion, and maintaining volunteers for education services. Through the promotion and operation of the following three programs, the foundation of student academics aims to be established: the Foundation of Program on Tool Subject Learning, the Student Learning Support Program, and the Teacher Professional Advancement Program. Through these programs, basic student academic competence and the development of diverse student competencies can be ensured.

The Establishment of Three Comprehensive Laws of Experimental Education
  In November 2014, three laws regarding experimental education were set in place: the Enforcement Act for Non-School-Based Experimental Education at the Senior High School Level or Below, the Enforcement Act for School-based Experimental Education, and the Act Governing the Commission of the Operation of Public Elementary and Junior Secondary Schools in the Private Sector. All these laws seek to inspire both the government and private sector to carry out experimental education as outlined in the Education Fundamental Act . In addition, and in order to provide a friendly development surrounding experimental education, and the extension of the school-based experimental education in senior high schools or higher school level, the three laws of experimental education were revised in 2016. On January 31, 2018, the president announced the three revised laws: the Enforcement Act for Non-School-Based Experimental Education at the Senior High School Level or Below, the Enforcement Act for School-based Experimental Education, and the Act Governing the Commissioning of the Operation of Public Schools at Senior High School Level or Below to the Private Sector for Experimental Education. By revising these laws, it is hoped that the requirements of teaching scenarios and the goal of reaching sustainable development of experimental education can be achieved.

The Establishment of Laws to Ensure Sustainable Development of Schools in Remote Areas
  On December 6, 2017, the Act for Education Development of Schools in Remote Areas was announced. Through measures such as: the strengthening of educational measures of schools in remote areas, the expansion of the school budget, the flexible use of personnel, and the increasing welfare for teachers, educational rights for students of schools in remote areas can be ensured. Following Article 4 of this Act, the Ministry of Education has redefined the categories of schools in remote areas in the academic year 107. For undertaking the regulations outlined in this Article and assisting the development of schools located in detached areas (defined as places detached from developed areas), the Ministry of Education Operational Directions to Provide Subsidies to Schools in Remote and Detached Areas as an Educational Budget was established. The aforementioned operation directions aim to assist schools, municipalities, city or county governments to develop according to their own requirements and needs, and to organize the provision of related activities and resources for students and teachers. Additionally, the measure of simplifying the administrative procedures for subsidy applications is undertaken. It is hoped that difficulties in school operations can be resolved; and that school-based development and schools’ sustainable development can be uplifted, and to finally achieve the objective of erasing the educational gap between cities, counties, remote and detached areas.

最後更新日: 2019/11/19


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