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友善列印

 
終身學習 -Lifelong Learning
  終身學習的教育活動,從學前兒童一直到高齡長者,形成繼續性之教育過程。在橫軸方面,包括正規、非正規及非正式的教育活動;在縱軸方面,涵蓋家庭、學校、社會等3種面向。我國自70年代起,即積極加強推展終身教育,84年發表〈中華民國教育報告書:邁向二十一世紀的教育遠景〉,將「規劃生涯學習體系,建立終身學習社會」,列為我國教育發展的重要方向。87年訂為「終身學習年」,並發布〈邁向學習社會白皮書〉,提出8項國家教育發展願景,14項具體的實施途徑及14項行動方案。91年訂頒〈終身學習法〉,使我國成為第6個專為終身學習立法的國家。

建構多元終身學習管道
  推動識字教育,降低不識字人口,全國不識字率至107年底已降至1.13%,107年教育部持續補助各地方政府辦理「成人基本教育研習班」共546班,約1萬0,481人次參加,同時加強識字教育宣導、教材教法及師資研習等措施。為使國中小教學設備、空間有效運用,另協助18個地方政府34所國中小將現有學習空間轉型為「社區多功能學習中心」,以便社區民眾使用。

  又為提升民眾公民素養,持續補助及獎勵各地方政府所轄社區大學,107年全國已有87所社區大學及15所原住民族部落大學(部落大學為原住民族委員會權管),每年超過40萬人次選課。此外,持續推動非正規教育學習成就認證制度,使正規教育與非正規教育得以接軌連結。

  因應終身學習社會及臺灣的人口年齡結構變遷,鼓勵各直轄市、縣(市)政府以各地方發展特色為基礎,回應在地民眾多元學習需求,結合在地大學校院與民間組織,107年補助15個直轄市及縣(市)推動學習型城市計畫,透過學習資源整合與連結,建構更完善的終身學習體系,增進學習機會與風氣,以朝向學習型社會、學習型臺灣目標邁進。

法制化引導社區大學多元發展
  自87年我國成立第一所社區大學以來,社區大學於各地蓬勃發展,迄今全國已設有87所社區大學,學員數達40萬人次,社區大學已成為大眾熟悉且認同之終身學習主要管道。社區大學業務推展,需由中央部會、各地方政府及受託辦理社區大學之單位共同協力合作。為促進社區大學永續發展,積極回應社區大學推動20年之實務需求,教育部於107年6月13日制定公布〈社區大學發展條例〉,中央及地方主管機關協力完善社區大學辦學條件,透過立法規範使社區大學有更明確定義及制度化之保障,促進社區大學穩健經營,進而讓臺灣的終身學習體系有更全面的支持。

強化短期補習班管理
  106年6月14日修正公布〈補習及進修教育法〉第9條,明定短期補習班之招生、書面契約、廣告或宣傳涉及負責人、教職員工時,均應揭露其真實姓名;短期補習班擬聘僱教職員工前,均應檢附其名冊、學經歷證件及警察刑事紀錄證明等文件陳報地方政府主管教育行政機關核准,並賦予短期補習班人員知悉班內發生性侵害、性騷擾等情事時,應立即向地方政府主管教育行政機關及有關機關通報之責任;且依違規事項之情節輕重處以不同程度之罰鍰及行政處分,藉此強化對短期補習班之管理。

  另教育部於直轄市及各縣(市)短期補習班資訊管理系統增置線上審核短期補習班教職員工名冊之功能,並與衛生福利部之保護資訊系統完成跨部會系統介接,有助於查核渠等人員是否有不適任情事發生之紀錄,作為短期補習班聘任人員之依據。此外,教育部已建立短期補習班不適任人員專區,供地方政府主管教育行政機關查詢,以達防止渠等人員跨直轄市、縣(市)再度被聘(僱)用。其次,自107年起補助地方政府增置人力及增編業務相關經費與持續辦理研習輔導,以強化地方政府主管教育行政機關承辦人員專業知能及管理效能,維護學生及家長權益。

推動家庭教育支持與服務措施
  我國系統性推動家庭教育工作肇始於75年,訂頒「加強家庭教育,促進社會和諧」5年實施計畫實施方案暨修正計畫,於部分直轄市、縣(市)成立「親職教育諮詢中心」。為因應社會發展需求,達到強化家庭教育之目的,81年訂頒〈加強家庭教育,強化親職教育功能計畫〉,並補助地方政府成立家庭教育服務中心(後改稱「家庭教育中心」),並聘任專職人員推動各項工作。88-92年依據《邁向學習社會白皮書》推動「學習型家庭」。

  83年起著手研擬〈家庭教育法〉草案,將焦點放在提升國人家庭教育知能之相關教育作為,經過修正後於92年立法通過,成為推動家庭教育工作的法源依據,責成中央及地方推動相關工作。為強化結合相關部會局處、學校及民間團體資源、家庭教育中心組織任務與專業及提供民眾相關家庭教育知能,教育部完成〈家庭教育法〉部分條文修正草案,業於107年12月17日函送立法院審議。

  為倡導家庭價值,推動家庭教育理念,整合資源推動各項家庭教育工作,賡續以〈第二期推展家庭教育中程計畫(107年-110年)〉及〈高級中等以下學校家庭教育整合計畫(102年-106年)〉為藍圖,期能逐年達成提升各地方家庭教育中心及推展家庭教育之機構、團體專業服務能量,並提供多元學習機會與數位學習資源,普及更多民眾認識與運用家庭教育各項資源。

辦理高齡學習活躍老化
  於97年起以「一鄉鎮、一樂齡」之理念,逐年於全國各鄉鎮市區設置「樂齡學習中心」,107年已於360個鄉鎮市區補助設置368所中心,辦理活動達10萬1,760場次,參與人次達252萬2,054人次;另鼓勵樂齡學習中心成立「樂齡志工隊」;共有1萬1,366位志工,107年全國已有1,314個樂齡學習社團及2,857個樂齡學習村里拓點。107學年度再結合107所大學校院辦理〈樂齡大學計畫〉,提供高齡者多元學習的機會。107年為廣推高齡教育,辦理〈推動高齡自主學習團體終身學習活動試辦計畫〉,業培訓136位自主帶領人,協助前往偏鄉及邊陲社區帶領活動,計有131個團體於各地進行學習活動,強化貢獻服務的能量。教育部為因應高齡人口增加、學習需求擴充以及高齡社會來臨,自106年推動〈高齡教育中程發展計畫〉,實施期間為106年至109年,目標對象為55歲以上之國民,以積極前瞻的觀點,規劃民眾多元學習因應老化的管道。

形塑優質社教機構學習場域
  教育部自103年開始推動〈跨域體驗 終身樂學—國立社教機構跨域加值發展計畫〉;106年更推動〈智慧服務 全民樂學—智慧服務全民樂學—國立社教機構科技創新服務計畫〉,於各社教機構融入智慧科技並創新服務模式,達成跨機構資源共建分享,強化服務品質,創新軟硬體設施,形塑多元優質之學習場域;107年進行〈臺北科學藝術園區整體發展計畫〉,符應地區發展趨勢,整合學習資源,建構三館一園的科學藝術園區。107年11月28日制定公布〈教育部所屬機構作業基金設置條例〉,有助於活化社教機構,加強產學合作,使其財務運作及經營管理產生全新思維,發揮更多創意,精進推動終身學習。另結合文化部舉辦寒、暑假活動聯合記者會,推出「Muse大玩家」系列學習活動,透過網站、Line及FaceBook等管道行銷推廣各項精彩展演活動,鼓勵民眾參與學習活動。

創新圖書館服務與功能
  為輔導直轄市、縣(市)政府、國家圖書館及公立公共圖書館提升閱讀環境及服務品質,並鼓勵其積極推廣各項閱讀活動,教育部訂定「教育部補助辦理國家圖書館及公共圖書館提升閱讀品質實施要點」,建構圖書館優質閱讀環境,鼓勵全民閱讀,縮短城鄉知識傳播差距:結合地方文化特色,發揮公共圖書館多目標功能,補助82館更新館內設施設備,營造溫馨且適合閱讀的空間;另持續推動12個區域資源中心,充實核心藏書,透過館際互借與館藏巡迴等機制,發揮館藏效益,並推動地方政府配合當地特色,以及針對在地不同屬性之讀者群,規劃多元閱讀推廣活動。另為使圖書館永續發展,提升服務效能,並推動〈國家圖書館南部分館暨聯合典藏中心建設計畫〉、〈建構合作共享的公共圖書館系統中長程個案計畫〉等,建立全民樂學的學習環境,厚植國人軟實力,並提升經營效能、促進城鄉及相關產業發展。

  The educational activities of lifelong learning are designed for a wide range of people, from preschool children to senior citizens, thus forming a consecutive education process. On the one hand, lifelong learning includes regular and non-regular educational activities, on the other, it contains 3 aspects: family, school, and society. Since the 1980s’, our nation has actively promoted lifelong education. In 1995, the Education Report of the Republic of China: Toward the Education Vision of the 21st Century was announced, which listed “planning the lifelong learning system, and establishing a society of lifelong learning” as an important orientation of our national education development. The year 1998 was set as “the Year of Lifelong Learning”, and in this year, the White Paper toward a Society of Learning was published. The White Paper proposed 8 national education development visions, 14 specific implementation paths, and 14 action programs. In 2002, the Lifelong Learning Act was declared, which enabled our nation to become the 6th nation to establish a specific law for lifelong learning.

The Establishment of Diverse Lifelong Learning Paths
  Literacy education has been promoted, to lower the population of illiterate people. In 2018, the national rate of illiterate people was lowered to 1.13%. In 2018, the Ministry of Education provided subsidies to all city or county governments to carry out the Courses of Adult Basic Education, with 546 courses, and about 10,481 participants in total. Meanwhile, measures such as the promotion, teaching materials, and teacher training of literacy education were strengthened. Furthermore, to efficiently use the space and facilities of elementary and junior high schools, the Ministry of Education has assisted 18 local governments in transforming current learning spaces of 34 elementary and junior high schools into Community Multiple Function Learning Centers, so as to facilitate usage for people in nearby communities.

  To further enhance people’s literacy, the Ministry of Education has continuously provided subsidies and awards to community colleges governed by all local governments. In 2018, there were 87 community colleges and 15 universities of indigenous communities in our nation, (universities of indigenous communities are managed by the Council of Indigenous Peoples). More than 400,000 people attend classes in these institutes every year. In addition, the learning achievement qualification system of non-formal education has been continually promoted, in order to enable formal education and non-formal education to be connected.

  In response to the lifelong learning society and the age structure changes of the population in our nation, all municipality, county, or city governments were encouraged to respond to the diverse learning requirements of people, and connect with universities, colleges, and private organizations in local places, to develop programs based on the particular features of local places. In 2018, 15 municipalities, and counties (cities) were offered subsidies to promote the Learning City Project. Through the following 3 strategies, we have progressed in developing toward a society of learning: a “learning Taiwan.”
1. The integration and connection of learning resources.
2. The comprehensive establishment of lifelong learning systems.
3. The enhancement of learning opportunities and atmosphere.


Provision of the Legalization for Guiding Diverse Development of Community Universities
  Since the first community college in our nation was established in 1998, community colleges have been successfully developed, and until today there are 87 community colleges in our nation, with 400,000 students. Community colleges have become recognized as the major path of lifelong learning by our people. The cooperation between departments from central authorities, local governments, and consigned operational departments for the operating of community colleges is required for the developmental issues to be efficiently handled. On June 13, 2018, to enhance the sustainable development of community colleges, and to actively respond to the practical requirements of the 20-year promotion of community colleges, the Ministry of Education established and declared the Community College Development Act. Competent authorities of the central departments, and of local departments, have cooperated to comprehensively better the operating conditions of community colleges. Through legislated regulations, clear definitions and effective systems of community college management, the stable operation of community colleges has been guaranteed and promoted. More comprehensive support can thus be offered to the lifelong learning system of our nation.

The Strengthening of the Short-term Cram School Management
  On June 14, 2017, Article 9 of the Supplementary Education Act was revised and declared, and states:
1. When the name of a responsible person or a faculty or staff member is involved in the recruitment of students, or in a written contract by a short-term tutorial center, or in any advertising or promotion of the center done using its premises, the media, or by any other means, the person’s real name shall be disclosed without exception, in addition to the registered name of the center, and no falsehood or misrepresentation is permitted. The same requirement applies to the person in charge and all staff members when they engage in work duties, external recruitment of students, or advertising.
2. Before hiring or employing any faculty or staff member, a short-term tutorial center shall submit to the competent educational authority of the appropriate special municipality, county, or county-level city basic information including: the relevant name list, diplomas and certificates documenting education and professional experiences, photocopies of personal identification documents, and attach a criminal record certificate issued by the police.
3. Working members in short-term tutorial centers, when becoming aware of any issues occurring such as sexual harassment, or sexual assault, must immediately report to their competent education authorities in local governments, and they have the responsibility of reporting the aforementioned matters.
4. According to the different issues of violation, different levels of strictness apply, hence different levels of penalties and administrative injunctions will be given, so as to strengthen the management of short-term tutorial centers.

  In addition, the Ministry of Education has set up the short-term cram school working member manual, with online review functions in the short-term cram school information management system of each municipality and county (city). The interdepartmental system interface of protective information system has been finalized with the cooperation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. This assists in reviewing and checking the records of any inappropriate issues regarding working members in short-term cram schools, and also serves as a reference of short-term cram school employee recruitment standards. In addition, the Ministry of Education has established a specific section of inappropriate employee database, in order to provide material evidence for the competent education authorities of local governments to consult, and to prevent these employees from being employed again in other municipalities, counties or cities. In addition, since 2018, the Ministry of Education has provided subsidies to local governments for recruiting new employees, editing and increasing related operational budgeting, and continuously organizing workshops and guidance works. It is expected to strengthen related officers’ professional knowledge and management efficiency in the competent education authorities in local governments, and thus to maintain students’ and families’ rights.

The Promotion of Family Education Support and Service Measures
  The systematic promotional work of family education in our nation began in 1986. In the same year, the 5-Year Implementation Project and Revision Program of “the Strengthening of Family Education, Promotion of Social Harmony” were established and declared; and, in addition, the Parental Education Consultation Centers were established in certain municipalities, and counties (cities). In 1992, in response to the development requirements of society, and to achieve the goal of strengthening family education, the Project of Strengthening Family Education, and of Strengthening the Functions of Parental Education was established and announced. In 1992, subsidies were also provided to local governments to establish Family Education Service Centers (later renamed as Family Education Centers); full-time officers were recruited to promote and carry out all sorts of works. From 1999 to 2003, the form of “Learning Family” was promoted in accordance with the White Paper of Developing Toward a Society of Learning.

  In 1994, the draft of the Family Education Act was begun. Its focal point was enhancing the related education actions of people’s family education knowledge and skills. In 2003, this Act was revised, legislated, and became the legislative resource for promoting affairs of family education, and of instructing central and local governments to promote related matters. To: strengthen the integration of resources from related departments, offices, schools, and private organizations; enhance the organization missions, and professions of family education centers, and provide people with knowledge and skills related to family education, the Ministry of Education finalized certain parts of the revision of the Family Education Act, which on December 17, 2018, was consigned to the Legislative Yuan to review.

  To promote family values and concepts of family education and to integrate resources in promoting family education affairs, the following two projects served as the blueprint: The Second Session of Family Education Promotion Medium Term Project (2018-2021), the Family Education Integration Project in Elementary, Junior High, and Senior High Schools (2013-2017). The following purposes were expected to be achieved: gradually enhancing family education centers and family education promotional institutes and organizations in all places, activating the services and energy of related institutes and organizations, providing diverse learning opportunities and digital learning resources, popularizing all sorts of resources of family education, and enabling people to become familiar with these resources and make good use of them.

The Implementation of Senior Citizen Learning and Active Ageing
  Since 2008, based on the concept of “Every County and Town with Senior Citizen Learning”, Active Ageing Learning Centers have been established gradually in all counties and towns. Up until 2018, 360 counties and towns have been provided with subsidies for establishing 368 active ageing learning centers, with 101,760 activities held, for 2,522,054 participants. In addition, active ageing learning centers were encouraged to be set up by senior volunteer groups, in which 11,366 volunteers have taken part. By 2018, there were 1,314 ageing learning clubs and 2,857 ageing learning village spots. In the academic year 107, 107 universities and colleges cooperated to undertake the Active Ageing University Project, in order to provide seniors with diverse learning opportunities. In 2018, for promoting active ageing education, the Pilot Project of Lifelong Learning Activities in Promoting Senior Autonomous Learning Groups was carried out. In this project, 136 leaders were trained, and sent to counties and communities located in peripheral areas to hold activities. 131 groups in total held learning activities in all locations, to strengthen the energy of devotion services. Since 2017, in response to the increasing senior population, the expanding learning requirements, and the coming ageing society, the Ministry of Education has promoted the Senior Citizen Education Medium Term Development Project, for which the operation period is 2017-2020. The targeted service groups are citizens of age 55 and above. With proactive and foresighted viewpoints, diverse learning paths in response to aging people have been planned and created.

The Shaping of Quality Learning Fields of Social and Education Institutions
  In 2014, the Ministry of Education began to promote the Experience in Interdisciplinary Fields, Joyful Lifelong Learning –Interdisciplinary Fields Top Up Developmental Project of National Social Education Institutions. In 2017, the Ministry of Education further promoted the Intelligent Services, Joyful Learning for All People – Technology Innovation Services Project of National Social Education Institutions. The intelligent technology and innovative service patterns have been integrated into all social education institutions to attain the following goals: joint resources sharing between institutions, strengthening service quality and innovative software and hardware, and shaping diverse quality learning fields. In 2018, the Overall Development Project of the Taipei Science and Art Areas was carried out. In response to the developmental trends of the area, learning resources have been integrated, a science and art zone with 3 institutions and a park have been continuously established. On November 28, 2018, the Act Governing the Establishment of the Operations Fund for Subordinate Institutions of the Ministry of Education was put into effect, to achieve the following purposes: assisting in activating social education institutions, strengthening the cooperation between schools and industry, motivating social and education institutions to produce new thinking on their financial operations and management, and enhancing lifelong learning promotion with unlimited creativity. In addition, in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture, joint press conferences of winter and summer vacation activities have been held. A series of lifelong learning activities named “Muse Players” have been carried out. Through paths such as websites, LINE, and Facebook, all sorts of splendid exhibition activities have been promoted, so as to encourage people to participate in learning activities.

Innovative Services and Functions of Libraries
  The Ministry of Education established the Implementation Regulations of MOE Subsidies Provisions to National Libraries and Public Libraries to Enhance Reading Quality, in order to provide guidance to municipality, county (city) governments, national libraries, and public libraries to enhance reading environments and service quality, and to encourage them to actively promote all reading activities. To create cozy and reading appropriate spaces, the related strategies were as follows:
1. Establishing quality reading environments in libraries.
2. Encouraging people to read.
3. Reducing the gap of knowledge dissemination between cities and countries.
4. Connecting with the cultural features of each place.
5. Fulfilling comprehensively the multiple functions of public libraries.
6. Providing subsidies to 82 institutions to renew facilities.
7. Continuously promoting 12 area resource centers.
8. Fulfilling the treasure book collection, and its value via systems such as book borrowing, and collection tours between libraries.
9. Planning diverse reading promotional activities for different groups of readers, in different places, and in accordance with the local features of local governments.

  In addition to achieving the sustainable development of libraries, and their service efficiency, the Establishment Project of National Library South Branch and Joint Collection Center, and the Medium Term Independent Project of Establishing Cooperative Sharing Public Library System have been promoted. It is expected to set up joyful learning environments for all people, cultivating people with soft power, enhancing operation efficiency, and upgrading developments of countries, cities and related industries.

最後更新日: 2019/11/19


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