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友善列印

 
原住民族教育 -Indigenous Peoples Education
  自中央政府遷臺以來,政府對於原住民族教育的政策發展歷程,大致可分為4個時期,說明如下:

山地平地化時期
  自臺灣光復至51年。對原住民族教育平等對待,將日治時代的蕃童教育所改為國民學校,並比照邊疆學生優待。38年訂定〈臺灣省教育廳改善山地教育設施三年計畫〉,40年公布實施〈改進山地教育實施方案〉,41年的〈臺灣省各縣加強山地教育行政設施要點〉對山地教育的行政強化、師資補足、學生照顧及設施的充實,都有進展。

融合整體社會時期
  52年至76年。在促使原住民與一般社會融合,仍採平地化目標及保護扶植精神,並加強國家意識,推行國語,傳授技藝等。52年訂定〈山地行政改進方案〉,69年公布〈臺灣省加強山地國民教育辦法〉,鼓勵教師任教,學生享有書籍、文具等免費優惠,住校者免住宿費並補助伙食費,增設分班分校等。

開放發展時期
  77年至89年。教育部於77年成立「原住民教育委員會」,以「適應現代生活,維護傳統文化」為目標。82年訂定〈發展與改進原住民教育五年計畫〉,87年繼續推動〈發展與改進原住民教育第二期五年計畫〉,並納入教育改革行動方案實施,編列專款執行原住民族教育工作。同年,總統公布〈原住民族教育法〉,奠定法制基礎。


主體發展時期
  90年起至今。89年精省後原臺灣省教育廳的業務由教育部直接處理。持續推動〈教育改革行動方案〉的〈加強原住民學生教育方案〉,並於92年召開「全國教育發展會議」以「尊重原住民主體性,發展原住民族教育」作為未來工作目標。94年核定〈發展原住民族教育五年中程個案計畫(95-99年)〉,為推動原住民族教育之政策主軸。100年教育部與原住民族委員會(以下簡稱原民會)共同訂定發布《原住民族教育政策白皮書》及〈發展原住民族教育五年中程個案計畫(100-104年)〉,並分別於102年及103年酌修發布前開之5年計畫,以因應政府組織改造工程、十二年國民基本教育實施及原住民族教育法令修正等對原住民族教育發展之影響;104年教育部與原民會會銜發布〈發展原住民族教育五年中程計畫(105-109年)〉,整併103年會銜發布〈原住民族教育人才培育四年計畫〉,並於106年配合總統原住民族政策酌修發布前開之5年計畫,俾強化原住民族學生在各級教育的學習競爭力,以發揮原住民族學生多元潛能,培育原住民族多樣人才。

近期重要政策發展

一、 設置原住民族教育研究中心:為落實前開總統原住民族政策,教育部經完成設立原住民族教育專責研究單位之評估後,106年8月10日於國家教育研究院設置原住民族教育研究中心,以支援各階段原住民族教育推展工作,並於107年5月24日完成法制化,將原教中心納入該院正式編制,強化原住民族教育主體性。

二、 檢討修正相關法規:於105年10月啟動檢討修正〈原住民族教育法〉及其施行細則作業,以因應社會變遷及外界期許,並於106年底提出修正草案;惟因研修過程中,各界意見十分多元,期間歷經數十次會議不斷協調整合,綜整學者專家、公聽會、論壇、相關部會及地方政府等意見,納入修法整體研參,並進行法制作業,於108年2月26日函報行政院審議。

三、 推動大專校院設立原住民族學生資源中心:為提供大專校院原住民族學生生活、課業及就業輔導等一站式服務,教育部自104年起會同原民會補助原住民族學生資源中心(以下簡稱原資中心)運作經費,並為擴大補助校數,復於105年12月8日訂定發布〈教育部補助大專校院原住民族學生資源中心要點〉,於106年增編預算補助設置原資中心,同年亦首度設置北、中、南、東及專科學校等5個區域原資中心,以建立區域內學校聯繫、資源分享平臺,提供諮詢及經驗交流。

四、 發展原住民族實驗教育

(一) 教育部推動原住民族實驗教育,依據〈學校型態實驗教育實施條例〉輔導有意願辦理並通過地方政府審議之學校,另依據〈高級中等學校辦理實驗教育辦法〉及〈教育部國民及學前教育署補助高級中等學校辦理原住民族實驗教育要點〉推動原住民族實驗教育班,以完善原住民族實驗教育之十二年國民基本教育規劃。

(二) 為落實〈原住民族教育法〉相關法規及十二年國民基本教育課程綱要總綱之規定,建構原住民族之中央與地方課程研發與教學輔導網絡,健全原住民族教學輔導組織,教育部106年至107年間分別於國立臺中教育大學、國立東華大學、國立臺東大學與國立屏東大學成立原住民族課程發展協作中心之西區、宜花、臺東及南區中心,108年於國立清華大學成立北區中心,以結合「區域」及「領域」(族群)輔導機制,落實雙域概念,統整協調各分區中心之運作,讓原住民族課程發展共享共榮。

   Since the government of the Republic of China moved to Taiwan in 1949, the development history of the indigenous peoples education is divided into 4 periods by the government. These 4 periods are outlined in the explanations as follows:

The Period of Indigenous Peoples in the Society on the Plains
  The Period of Indigenous Peoples in the Society on the Plains is the period from the early restoration of the Republic of China until 1962. To achieve equality of indigenous peoples education, the primary indigenous educational institutions of the Japanese colonial period were changed into primary schools, where students could receive the same subsidies as students in Mongolia, Tibet and other frontiers. In 1949, the 3-Year Project of Taiwan Provincial Government, the Education Administration Improvement on Indigenous Peoples Education Facilities in Remote and Isolated Mountain Areas was established. In 1951, the Implementation Program of Mountain Indigenous Education Improvement was announced and implemented. In 1952, the Regulations of Strengthening Mountain Indigenous Education Administration Facilities of all Counties was announced and implemented. The aforementioned regulations, programs, and projects have made progress in the following aspects of the mountain indigenous education: strengthening the administrative procedures, taking good care of students, and providing sufficient teachers and facilities.

The Period of Integration into Society
  The Period of Integration into Society, from 1963 to 1987, aimed at encouraging indigenous peoples to be integrated into society, by measures such as: transforming indigenous peoples to integrate into the society on the plains, continuing the spirit of protecting and supporting indigenous peoples, strengthening national consciousness and the promotion of Chinese language, and passing on traditional techniques and arts. In 1963, the Improvement Program of Administrative Affairs in Mountain Areas was established. In 1980, the Taiwan Provincial Government Regulations on Strengthening Elementary School Education of Indigenous Townships was announced. Both of the aforementioned programs and regulations were expected to: encourage teachers working in mountain areas, enable students in mountain areas to obtain subsidies for books and stationary, provide students who lived in school dormitories with free dormitories and subsidies for their meals, and increase classes and branches of schools in mountain areas.

The Period of Open Development
  The Period of Open Development is the period from 1988 to 2000. In 1988, the Ministry of Education established the Indigenous Peoples Education Committee in order to achieve the goals of helping indigenous peoples to adapt to modern life, while maintaining their traditional cultures. In 1993, the 5-Year Project of Indigenous Peoples Education Development and Improvement was set up. In 1998, the 5-Year Project at 2nd Session of Indigenous Peoples Education Development and Improvement was continuously promulgated, and combined into the Education Reform Implementation Action Program, which carried out related affairs to execute the designated budgeting of indigenous peoples education. In the same year, 1988, the President declared the Education Act for Indigenous Peoples, to establish the judicial foundation for indigenous peoples education.

The Period of Major Developments
  The Period of Major Developments is from 2001 till today. In 2000, the affairs of the Taiwan Provincial Government, the Education Administration were transferred to the Ministry of Education to operate directly. The Ministry of Education has continuously promoted the Program of Strengthening Indigenous Students’ Education in the Education Reform Action Program. In 2003, the National Education Development Meeting was held, and the future goal was set: respect the identity of indigenous people, and develop indigenous peoples education. The 5-Year Medium Project for Independent Cases of Indigenous Peoples Education Development (2006-2010) was reviewed and established, as the main core of promoting indigenous peoples education. In 2011, the Ministry of Education and the Council of Indigenous Peoples (abbreviated as CIP) established and announced both the White Papers of Educational Policy for Indigenous People, and the 5-Year Medium Project for Independent Cases of Indigenous Peoples Education Development (2011-2015). During 2013-2014, certain parts of the latter were revised in order to respond to the influences that the government re-organization, the implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education, and the revision of the Education Act for Indigenous Peoples had made to the development of indigenous peoples education. In 2014, the 4-Year Project of Indigenous Peoples Higher Education Talented Individuals Cultivation was announced and then combined into the 5-Year Medium Project Indigenous Peoples Education Development (2016-2020), which was announced together by the Ministry of Education and the CIP in 2015. In 2017, certain revisions of the latter were carried out in order to respond to the President’s policy of indigenous peoples education. Thus, it is hoped to strengthen indigenous students’ learning competitiveness at all education levels, and consequently to demonstrate the diverse potentials possessed by indigenous students, and to cultivate various talented indigenous students.

Current Important Policy Development

I. The Establishment of Indigenous Peoples Education Research Centers:
  On August 10, 2017, the Indigenous Education Research Center of the National Academy for Educational Research was established with the intention of achieving two purposes: fulfilling the aforementioned Presidential policy of indigenous peoples education, and supporting the promotional affairs of indigenous peoples education at all education levels. On May 24, 2018, the legislative procedures of the Indigenous Education Research Center were finalized, and were officially included in the contents of organization, so as to address the identity of indigenous peoples education.

II. The Revision of Related Regulations:
  In October 2016, the Education Act for Indigenous Peoples and its enforcement rules, were revised in response to the expectations from all sectors of society. The revision law was proposed at the end of 2017. Then, due to various opinions of different sectors during the revision process; and after dozens of meetings, organizations of opinions from experts, public hearings, forums, related authorities, city or county governments, which were contained in the reference to the revision in the judicial affairs, finally on February 26, 2019, the revision law was reported to the Executive Yuan to be reviewed. The major points of the revisions are as follows: expanding the target student range of indigenous peoples education, strengthening the cooperation between authorities, central and local government, strengthening the participation of indigenous people, establishing indigenous people education courses, providing sufficient teachers for indigenous people education, and enhancing teacher training quality. Consequently, it is expected to perfect the comprehensive education environment for indigenous peoples, and ensure their rights to education.

III. The Promotion of Colleges and Universities Establishing Indigenous Student Resource Centers:
  Since 2015, in order to provide indigenous students in colleges and universities with the one-stop service of life, studies, and employment guidance, the Ministry of Education and the CIP have provided subsidies to Indigenous Student Resource Centers (abbreviation as ISRC) for operational expenses. In addition, on December 8, 2016, to increase the number of schools accepting subsidies, the Regulations of MOE Subsidies for Indigenous Student Resource Centers in Colleges and Universities was established and announced. In 2017, the designated budgeting was increased for assisting schools to establish resource centers. In the same year, 2017, 4 Area Resource Centers located in northern, central, southern, and eastern parts of our nation, and 1 College Resource Center, were set up in order to establish school connections within areas and resource sharing platforms, as well as offering consultations and experience exchanges.

IV. The Development of Indigenous Peoples Experimental Education
i. The MOE promotion of indigenous peoples experimental education
  According to the Enforcement Act for School-based Experimental Education, the Ministry of Education offers assistance and guidance to schools which have the intention to both implement indigenous peoples experimental education and have passed the review of city or county government. In addition, according to the Regulations of Primary, Junior High and Senior High Schools Implementing Experimental Education, as well as the Regulations of K-12 Education Administration, Ministry of Education Providing Subsidies to Senior High & Vocational High Schools to Implement Indigenous Peoples Experimental Education, classes of the indigenous peoples experimental education have been promoted, so as to perfect the planning of 12-Year Basic Education of the Indigenous Peoples Experimental Education.
ii. In order to fulfill the related regulations of the Education Act for Indigenous Peoples, as well as the General Guidelines of the Curriculum Guidelines of 12-Year Basic Education, the Ministry of Education has both established the indigenous course development and teaching guidance network between central and local authorities, and finalized a comprehensive indigenous teaching guidance construction. During 2017-2018, the Ministry of Education has established:
1. the Indigenous Course Development Cooperation Chief Center & Western Center in National Taichung University of Education
2. the Yilan & Hualien Branch of the Indigenous Course Development Cooperation Center in National Dong Hwa University
3. the Taitung Branch of the Indigenous Course Development Cooperation Center in National Taitung University
4. the South Branch of the Indigenous Course Development Cooperation Center in National Pingtung University
5. During 2019, the North Branch of the Indigenous Course Development Cooperation Center in National Tsing Hua University was established.

  Through the guidance system, in combination with areas and groups of indigenous peoples, the concept of operation in different areas and with diverse indigenous peoples groups can be carried out. In this way, the operation of centers in each branch can be coherent and organized, so that successful and affluent indigenous course development can be consequently attained.


最後更新日: 2019/11/19


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