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友善列印

 
特殊教育 -Special Education
修訂法令規章
  73年總統令公布〈特殊教育法〉,86年修正,宣誓提供身心障礙及資賦優異國民適性教育之立法精神。98年再次修正,以建構特殊教育行政支持網絡並精緻特殊教育品質。

訂定〈特殊教育中程計畫〉
  因應國際特殊教育發展趨勢及人口少子化等議題,全面建構我國具前瞻特殊教育環境,於107年8月訂定發布〈特殊教育中程計畫〉(107學年度∼111學年度),其包含:「檢討特教法規,健全行政措施」、「落實融合教育,強化適性輔導」、「精進特教師培,充實課程教材」、「整合教學資源,推廣適應體育」、「改善校園環境,營造無礙校園」、「建構轉銜系統,完善支持功能」及「提升特教品質,加強國際接軌」等7大實施策略。

設立專責單位、經費專款專用
  在行政體制上,至92年止,各級政府皆排除萬難設置特殊教育專責單位,並依法律規定,每年編列一定比例之特殊教育經費,以專人及專款,專責推動特殊教育。

身心障礙學生安置就學
  對於高級中等以下學校身心障礙學生之安置,係以滿足學生學習需要為前提,最少限制環境為原則。為落實國民教育階段學生安置就學,訂定輔導教學原則、輔導方式及提供所需人力資源與協助等辦法,另為擴增國中畢業之身心障礙學生升學就讀高級中等學校之機會,89年12月修正發布〈完成國民教育身心障礙學生升學輔導辦法〉,90年4月完成〈身心障礙學生12年就學安置4年計畫〉,自90學年度起實施身心障礙學生12年就學安置。又〈完成國民教育身心障礙學生升學輔導辦法〉業於102年8月22日修正發布,名稱經修正為〈身心障礙學生升學輔導辦法〉。學生可以多元入學方案進入高級中等學校就學,如免試入學、特色招生,其超額比序總績分或採計成績總分加25%,並外加錄取2%名額,除自願就學高級中等學校特教班或特殊教育學校高職部外,各主管教育行政機關亦可依身心障礙學生實際需要,自訂入學安置方式。

  另為因應教育部推動十二年國民基本教育政策,於96年訂定〈高中職身心障礙學生就學輔導發展方案〉,使身心障礙學生接受完整適性之後期中等教育,落實延長受教年限,符應促進受教機會均等及適性發展之政策,並自103學年度起實施身心障礙學生適性輔導安置。目前身心障礙適性輔導安置管道有3種管道,分別為安置特殊教育學校、安置高級中等學校集中式特教班及安置高級中等學校。

擴增身心障礙學生大專校院就學機會
  教育部為推動身心障礙學生升學大專校院機會,身心障礙學生除可參加多元入學方案之升學管道外,教育部每年辦理身心障礙學生升學大專校院甄試;另96學年度起學校依身心障礙學生之障礙特性,辦理單獨招收身心障礙學生考試,提供多元升學大專機會。

營造無障礙校園環境及提供完善的輔具服務
  教育部為了解各級學校無障礙設施之需求,並籌編適當改善經費之專款額度,成立「推動無障礙環境專案小組」,每年定期檢視各地方政府及各級學校無障礙環境現況問題,由各校及地方政府研擬整體及年度改善計畫,以分年、分期改善模式逐年落實,並依改善無障礙校園環境補助原則向教育部申請補助經費。

  另為提供身心障礙學生完善的教育輔具服務,教育部委託辦理大專校院及高級中等學校身心障礙學生教育輔具中心,另委辦視障電腦教育訓練及諮詢維修服務專案。105至108年委託淡江大學辦理視障學生教育輔具中心及視障電腦教育訓練諮詢維修等2項計畫,並委託國立高雄師範大學辦理聽語障學生教育輔具中心、委託中山醫學大學附設醫院辦理肢障學生教育輔具中心。

The Revision of Laws and Regulations
  In 1984, the President announced the Special Education Act. In 1997, the Act was revised. The Act vowed to provide students with physical and mental disabilities, as well as those gifted and talented students with appropriate education, and the legislative belief. In 2009, the Act was revised again, which aimed at establishing a special education administrative support network and refining special education quality.

The Establishment of the Middle Project of Special Education
  In response to the development trends of special education, and the related issues of low birth rate, the Ministry of Education established a comprehensive forward-looking special education environment. In August 2018, the Middle Project of Special Education (Academic year 107-111) included 7 implementation strategies as follows:
1. Reviewing laws and regulations of special education, and implementing comprehensive administrative measures.
2. Carrying out inclusive education, and strengthening adaptive guidance.
3. Mastering teacher cultivation for special education, and enriching teaching materials.
4. Organizing teaching resources, and promoting adaptive sports.
5. Improving campus environments, and creating barrier-free campus environments.
6. Establishing transition systems, and perfecting support functions.
7. Enhancing special education quality, and fortifying the connection with the international world.

The Establishment of Specific Units, and Fees of Expense
  Until 2003, in the aspect of the administrative system, authorities at all levels established specific units responsible for special education by surmounting all difficulties. According to laws and regulations, designated budgeting of special education has been operated in standard portions by specific responsible personnel and within special fees, to undertake special education.

The Study Placement of Students with Physical and Mental Disabilities
  The main principles of study placement of students with physical and mental disabilities in primary, junior high, and senior high schools are satisfying students’ needs, and reducing all environmental limitations as much as possible. To carry out the study placement for students with physical and mental disabilities in primary and junior high educational stages, related measures concerning teaching principles guidelines, methods, human resources provisions and assistance have all been regulated. In addition, to increase the rights to education for graduating junior high school students with physical and mental disabilities to entering in senior high schools, the revised Admission Guidance Regulations of Accomplished Education in Primary and Junior High Schools for Students with Physical and Mental Disabilities were announced in December 2000. The 4-Year Project of Students with Physical and Mental Disabilities 12-Year Study Placement was finalized in April 2001, and started to be implemented in the academic year 90. Additionally, on August 22, 2013, the Admission Guidance Regulations of Accomplished Basic Education for Students with Physical and Mental Disabilities were revised and renamed as the Admission Guidance Regulations for Students with Physical and Mental Disabilities. Students with physical and mental disabilities can enter senior high schools to continue their studies through multiple admission programs, such as exam-free admission, selective school and student recruitment, the bonus 25% of total grades and of selective examination subjects in admission, and additional 2% for student recruitment total number. Except for studying voluntarily in special education classes in senior high schools or the vocational high school department in special education schools, all administration authorities of education can regulate measures of admission study placement according to the actual requirements of students with physical and mental disabilities.

  Furthermore, to respond to the MOE promotion policy of the 12-Year Basic Education, the Admission Guidance Program for Students with Physical and Mental Disabilities in Senior High & Vocational High Schools was set up in 2007. To enable students with physical and mental disabilities to attend upper secondary education, and to respond to the policy of equality of education and the special needs instruction, the time limitation of accepting education has been prolonged. Since the academic year 103, the special needs instruction of study placement for students with physical and mental disabilities has been implemented. The current paths of adaptive guidance of study placement include: the study placement in special education schools, the study placement in centralized special education classes of regular senior high and vocational high schools, and the study placement in regular senior high and vocational high schools.

The Increase of Rights to Education for Students with Physical and Mental Disabilities Entering Colleges and Universities
  To promote the admission opportunities for students with physical and mental disabilities entering colleges and universities, not only can students participate in the multiple-admission program, but they also can take part in the annual College Entrance Exam for Physically and Mentally Disabled Students implemented by the Ministry of Education. Since the academic year 96, independent recruitment examinations for students with physical and mental disabilities have been carried out, according to students’ different physical and mental conditions, so as to provide students with diverse admission opportunities to colleges and universities.

The Creation of Barrier-free Environments in Campuses and The Provision of Comprehensive Assisted Device Services
  To gain more understanding of the barrier-free facility requirement in schools at all levels, and to conduct the revised appropriate dedicated budget amounts, the Ministry of Education established the Barrier-Free Environment Promotional Program Team. The current situations and problems of barrier-free environments in schools at all levels and at all city or county governments have been reviewed every year. Each school and local governments should organize and plan the overall and annual improvement projects. The improvement modes would be carried out respectively by years, and by sessions. Schools should apply for MOE subsidies following the subsidization principles of barrier-free campus environment improvement.

  In addition, to provide comprehensive educational device services for students with physical and mental disabilities, the Ministry of Education has consigned related issues to educational device centers of colleges, universities, senior high, and vocational high schools. The computer educational training for students with visual disabilities, and the facility consultation and repair specific phone line program were consigned to universities during 2016-2019 as follows:
1. The consignment to Tamkang University for implementing the aforementioned affairs.
2. The consignment to National Kaohsiung Normal University for implementing the education device center for students who have hearing impairments and communication disorders.
3. The consignment to Chung Shan Medical University Hospital for implementing the education device center for students who have physical impairments.

最後更新日: 2019/11/19


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