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友善列印

 
學校衛生 -Hygiene Education in School
讓學生健康、安全、快樂成長
  為建構學生健康促進體系,90年起推動〈健康促進學校計畫〉,91年2月公布〈學校衛生法〉,92年陸續發布4項子法;98年及99年訂定視力保健、口腔衛生保健、校園性教育(含愛滋病防治)、健康體位及菸害防治等實施計畫;102年訂定發布〈教育部兒童、青少年檳榔防制工作計畫〉及〈校園性教育(含愛滋病防治)實施計畫〉。

修正各項學校衛生法規,強化對學生健康之保護
  教育部於102年3月29日與衛生福利部會銜修正發布〈學生健康檢查實施辦法〉第3條、第6條,增列診所或所在地醫師公會為承辦學生健康檢查者,並明定應由合格且完成執業登記之醫事人員辦理學生健康檢查業務,及診所之資格及條件,按主管之學校分別由教育部、所在地直轄市、縣(市)政府及專科以上學校自行訂定;以及增列學生已成年或有行為能力者,應經學生本人同意後,始得將檢查結果通知其家長之規定,完善對學生健康之保護。

  102年7月18日修正發布〈各級學校健康中心設施基準〉,配合e化時代的來臨及現行法規的改變,將設施基準項目修正,刪除部分不合時宜用品或處置措施已更新者,另新增法令規定應設置項目如「自動體外心臟電擊去顫器」等,以符合各級學校實際需求。

  102年12月18日修正公布〈學校衛生法〉第 12、15、16、22、23 條條文,並增訂第 23條之1、23條之2、23條之3。修正重點在加強照護健康上有特殊需求學生,規範學校疑似食品中毒事件之通報與處理,落實營養教育之實施,並強化學校餐飲衛生自主管理機制及聯合稽查,學校應提供營養均衡之餐食以及優先使用在地優良農產品。其中所增列的第23條之1至第23條之3規定,明定學校營養師職責,嚴格管控學校午餐餐食供應品質,並持續補助高級中等以下學校辦理午餐,訂定各級學校辦理膳食採購契約範本,規範學校應公告經費收支情形。

  104年12月30日修正公布〈學校衛生法〉第5條、第16條及第20條至第23條之2。修正重點在提升學校衛生委員會對學校衛生政策等具諮詢指導功能,明定學校應實施健康飲食教育,並鼓勵安排學生參與學校餐飲準備過程,督導學校應提供哺育母乳環境設施,落實學校餐飲衛生自主管理機制、強化聯合抽查學校餐飲衛生及稽查學校午餐辦理情形,禁止使用含基因改造生鮮食材及初級加工品,新增學校午餐供應會應有現任家長參與之比例,述明主管機關應補助國民中小學設置廚房及會商農業主管機關協助在地食材供應等。

  104年1月29日、105年7月6日修正發布〈學校餐廳廚房員生消費合作社衛生管理辦法〉,除增定抽查學校午餐及稽查廠商機制等內容,並將校園食材登錄平臺納入規範,請學校或供應商應於平臺登載食品資訊及增列學校內供售之食品應具政府或公正專業機構認、驗證之標章,或偏鄉針對無驗證標章之食品得選購之方式外,並於105年依〈學校衛生法〉修正條文,更增定各級主管機關應會同農業及衛生福利主管機關抽查所轄學校餐飲衛生,每學年至少1次。爰各級主管機關於105年起,全面抽查所轄學校餐飲衛生,以保障師生校園飲食健康。

訂定或修正發布學校衛生實施計畫,促進青少年身心健康
  〈校園性教育(含愛滋病防治)實施計畫〉於102年4月25日訂定發布,具體策略包括提升健康教育專長師資比率及專業知能、增進學校行政人員處遇知能、落實健康教育教學正常化、提供性教育教學資源、提升學生性教育知能、積極推動大專校院性教育(含愛滋病防治)工作、性教育研究發展及考核與整合相關行政機關資源8項,期望強化各級學校學生對性教育的認知,提升相關工作人員性教育專業知能,落實各級學校性教育之推動,促進青少年身心健康。

  103年7月22日修正發布〈校園菸害防制實施計畫〉,實施策略包括菸害防制教育策略、營造無菸環境策略、戒菸教育策略等3項,期望建構教職員工生無菸支持性環境,強化學校與社區行動力,發展學生族群拒菸及戒菸之個人技巧,共創沒有菸害的健康校園友善環境。104年10月30日再修正,增定強化家庭教育功能之相關策略,期望父母或監護人善盡親權行使及監護之責,陪同子女接受戒菸教育,以共同杜絕菸害。

  103年7月11日修正發布〈教育部兒童、青少年檳榔防制工作計畫〉,實施策略包括制定政策、發展個人健康技能、強化社區連結、提供健康服務、營造社會支持環境及提供物質支持環境6項,期望營造家庭、校園與社區之無檳支持環境,提升兒童、青少年對於檳榔健康危害之認知,進而預防該族群嚼檳並降低其嚼檳率。105年8月31日再修正,更新統計數據、實施策略及成效指標,以提升學校推動效能。

補助各級學校推動健康促進計畫,營造健康友善校園
  教育部於94年2月15日訂定發布〈補助地方政府健康促進實施計畫〉,97年補助國、私立高級中等學校,大專校院自102年起全面推動健康促進學校,由各級教育主管機關整合相關資源,協助及督導所屬學校推動健康促進計畫,藉由評估學生及教職員工之校本健康促進需求,結合社區資源,透過健康教育與活動及健康服務之實施,引導學生、教職員工自發性及自主性地建立健康管理;與衛生單位合作,落實學校傳染病防治等自選議題,加上校園環境之配合,共同營造健康友善校園。

強化學校午餐管理,建置校園食材登錄平臺
  為落實學校餐飲衛生管理,102學年度持續邀請食品衛生、營養專家進行學校午餐輔導訪視,加強督導、監測各直轄市、縣(市)學校午餐供應品質,並要求各直轄市、縣(市)政府依訪視結果追縱輔導,辦理中央聯合稽查學校午餐供餐團膳廠商及食材供應商,並將稽查報告函送直轄市、縣(市)政府追蹤改善,且納入食材採購之參考。另為提供學校午餐透明化資訊,教育部配合行政院食品雲追溯、追蹤政策,建置「校園食材登錄平臺」,104年度起各級學校全面推動,目前有全國各級學校(含幼兒園)6,153校登錄學校午餐及消費合作社相關資料(包括國中小3,382校、高級中等學校530校、大專校院145校、公設幼兒園2,096校),共435萬名學生受益。

  又為強化學校午餐管理及發展健康飲食教育,並掌握推動現況、進行問題盤點並研擬解決方案,106年委請國立中興大學辦理「推動學校午餐專案辦公室」計畫,已於106年11月8日完成揭牌,正式運作。另配合行政院「食安五環」政策,推動學校午餐採用國產可追溯生鮮食材(簡稱四章一Q食材),增修學校外訂盒(桶)餐採購契約(參考範本),於107學年度第1學期起全面實施,以提升國中小學校供餐品質。

To Enable Students to Grow Up Healthily, Safely, and Happily
  The Health Promotion School Project was introduced in the 2000s to establish a promotional system for students’ health. In February 2002, the School Health Act was announced and throughout 2003, four sub-regulations were announced. In 2009 and 2010, operational vision care, oral hygiene care, sex education in campuses (including prevention of AIDS), physical health, and the tobacco hazards prevention projects were established. In 2013, the MOE Children and Youth Betel Nut Prevention Affairs Project, and the Implementation Project of Sex Education in Campuses (including Prevention of AIDS) were established and announced.

The Revision of All School Health Regulations Items and the Strengthening of Students’ Health Protection
   On March 29, 2013, the Ministry of Education cooperated with the Ministry of Health and Welfare to revise and declare Article 3 and Article 6 of the Regulations for the Implementation of Health Examinations for Students. The following regulations were expanded: For clinics or medical associations in local areas undertaking student health examinations, student health examination affairs must be implemented by qualified and registered medical members. Clinic qualifications and conditions are to be regulated by the Ministry of Education and by municipalities. Municipalities, city or county governments respectively can regulate the aforementioned regulations autonomously and under the jurisdiction of the MOE. The regulation stating: ‘for students who are adults, or have legal capacity, and after receiving students’ personal agreement, parents or families can thus be notified of their examination results’ was enhanced, to provide comprehensive protection of student health.

   On July 18, 2013, the Facility Regulations of Health Centers in Schools at All Levels were revised and announced. In accordance with the coming era of digitization, and changes to current judicial regulations, the regulation items concerning facilities were revised; sections with inappropriate/outdated facilities or equipment were canceled, and related measures were renewed. In addition, new regulations were enhanced to regulate compulsory equipment such as automated external defibrillators (AEDs), to meet the practical requirements of schools at all levels.

   On December 18, 2013, revised Articles 12, 15, 16, 22, and 23 of the School Health Act were announced; and Articles 23-1, 23-2, and 23-3 of the School Health Act were enhanced. The focal points of the revision were as follows:
1. Strengthening care for students with special health requirements.
2. Regulating, reporting and management of suspicious food poisoning incidents in schools.
3. Implementing nutrition education.
4. Strengthening the food hygiene autonomous management system in schools and joint inspection affairs.
5. Provision of food with balanced nutrition by schools.
6. Prioritizing used of quality agricultural products from local locations.

  In enhanced Articles 23-1 to 23-3, the following affairs were regulated:
1. The duties of dietitians in schools.
2. Strictly controlling the quality of lunch meals provided in schools.
3. On-going subsidies to primary, junior high and senior high schools to undertake school lunch matters.
4. The establishment of standard food purchase contracts for schools to implement related affairs.
5. Regulations on schools’ budgetary announcements.

  On December 30, 2015, revised Articles 5, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 23-1, and 23-2 of the School Health Act were declared. The focal points of the revision were as follows:
1. The competent authority at each level shall select and appoint scholars, experts, and representatives of organizations, and relevant bodies to form a School Health Committee with the responsibility to provide consultation, guidance, and advice.
2. Schools at all levels shall implement courses related to health and nutrition.
3. Schools shall encourage students to participate in the preparation of school meals.
4. The provision of breast-feeding facilities on campus by schools should be supervised.
5. The competent authority at each level shall supervise, assist, and operate schools’ food hygiene self-management mechanisms.
6. The competent education authority at each level shall strengthen implementation of food hygiene inspections and the provision of lunch meals at schools.
7. Food provided by schools must not contain raw foods, fresh foods or primary products using or containing genetically modified ingredients.
8. Schools at senior high school and lower levels serving lunch shall establish a School Lunch Council. An appropriate percentage of parents of current students should participate in the Council.
9. The competent authority shall provide subsidies for junior high schools and elementary schools to establish kitchens.
10. The competent authority shall collaborate with the competent agricultural authorities with regard to the supply of local ingredients.

  The Hygiene Management Regulations of Kitchens and Convenience Stores in Schools Provided for Working Members and Students were revised and announced for the first time on January 29, 2015. The second announcement was on July 6, 2016. In addition to broadening the scope of regular inspections of school lunch meals and their cooperative suppliers’ systems, the Campus Food Ingredients Registration Platform was also included in the regulations. Schools and suppliers were requested to upload food information, qualified food seals certified by judicial professional organizations or the government, and purchasing standards for schools located in remote and isolated areas purchasing foods without qualification seals. In addition, in 2016, regulations were revised according to the School Health Act, as follows: The competent authority at each level shall collaborate with the competent agriculture and health authorities to conduct regular food hygiene inspections of educational institutions randomly selected at least once each academic year. Therefore, in 2016, the competent authority conducted regular food hygiene inspections of educational institutions to ensure teachers’ and students’ food hygiene on campuses.

The Establishment and Revision of School Health Implementation Projects and the Enhancement of Youth Physical and Mental Health
   On April 25, 2013, the Implementation Project of Sex Education on Campuses (including Prevention of AIDS) was established and announced. Specific strategies were as follows:
1. Increasing the number of teachers with a health education background.
2. Enhancing teachers’ professional knowledge and skills.
3. Upgrading school administrative members’ professional knowledge and skills when undertaking cases of intervention.
4. Carrying out standard health education teaching.
5. Providing teaching resources for sex education.
6. Enhancing students’ knowledge of sex education.
7. Actively promoting sex education affairs (including prevention of AIDS) in colleges and universities.
8. Conducting inspections and research development on sex education and the integration of resources from related administrative authorities.

  The above measures are expected to attain the following purposes:
1. Strengthening students’ knowledge of sex education in schools at all levels.
2. Enhancing the professional sex education knowledge and skills of related educational staff.
3. Fulfilling the promotion of sex education in schools at all levels.
4. Promoting the physical and mental health of adolescents.

  On July 22, 2014, the revised Implementation Project of Tobacco Hazards Prevention was announced. The implementation strategies contained 3 items: tobacco hazards prevention education, creating a non-smoking environment strategy, and a smoking cessation education strategy. They were expected to attain the following goals:
1. Establishing a supportive non-smoking environment for teachers, working members, and students.
2. Strengthening the motivation of schools and communities to fulfill related measures.
3. Developing smoking refusal student groups.
4. Developing personal skills to quit smoking.
5. Creating healthy, friendly campus environments without tobacco hazards.

  On October 30, 2015, the implementation project was revised again; and strategies to strengthen family education functions were enhanced. Parents and legal guardians are expected to fulfill their custodial duties to their children, to accompany them to smoking cessation education, and to comprehensively prevent tobacco hazards altogether.

  On July 11, 2014, the revised MOE Children and Adolescents Betel Nut Prevention Affair Project was announced. The 6 implementation strategies are as follows:
1. Establishing policies.
2. Developing personal health skills.
3. Strengthening the connection of communities.
4. Providing health services.
5. Creating supportive social environments.
6. Offering substantial supportive surroundings.

  It was hoped to:
1. Create non-betel nut supportive environments for families, schools, and communities.
2. Enhance children’s and adolescents’ acknowledgement of the health risks caused by betel nuts.
3. Further prevent specific groups from betel nut chewing and gradually lowering their frequency of betel nut chewing.

  On August 31, 2016, the project was revised again. With revised statistics, implementation strategies, and indicators of efficiency, the efficiency of schools’ promotion of related affairs were thus enhanced.

The Subsidies for Schools at All Levels to Promote Health Advancement Project, and the Creation of Healthy and Friendly Campuses
  On February 15, 2005, the Ministry of Education established and declared the Subsidies for Local Government to Promote Health Advancement Project. In 2008, subsidies were provided to public and private senior high schools. In 2013, the promotion of healthy schools was carried out comprehensively in colleges and universities. Through the integration of related resources organized by competent education authorities, schools were assisted and supervised to promote the health advancement project. By evaluating teachers’, working members’, and students’ requirements for health enhancement, and by organizing community resources to implement health education, activities, and services, teachers, working members, and students could set up health management measures autonomously and independently. Via cooperation with health care units, optional additional topics such as contagious disease prevention could be undertaken in schools. Furthermore, with campus cooperation, healthy and friendly campus environments could be created together.

The Strengthening of School Lunch Management, and the Establishment of the Campus Food Ingredients Registration Platform
  Throughout the academic year 102, to fulfill food hygiene requirements for school lunch meals in schools, experts in food hygiene and nutritionists were invited to undertake guidance visits, in order to strengthen the supervision and inspections of school lunch meal supply quality in all municipalities, counties, and cities. All municipalities, counties, and cities were requested to track the results of the guidance measures arising from the inspection visits. Firms providing school lunch meals, and food suppliers were required to be jointly inspected by competent authorities and schools. The inspection reports were then delivered to municipalities, county, and city governments so they could track the follow-up improvements and refer to the reports when making food purchases. In addition, the Ministry of Education has cooperated with the Executive Yuan to track policies through the Office of Food Safety, Executive Yuan website, and has established the Campus Food Ingredients Registration Platform to provide open information concerning school lunch meals. This Platform has been in effect in schools at all levels since the academic year 104. Currently, there are 6,153 schools at all levels (including preschools) in our nation which have registered information related to school lunch meals and convenience stores (including 3,382 elementary and junior high schools, 530 senior high schools, 145 colleges and universities, and 2096 public preschools), which has benefited 4,350,000 students in total.

  In 2017, the National Chung Hsing University was assigned to implement the School Lunch Meal Promotion Project Office in order to: Strengthen the management of school lunch meals, develop healthy dietary education, keep track of current situations, inventory problems, and plan resolution programs. On November 8, 2017, the grand opening was held, and this project office began operation. Additionally, in accordance with the Executive Yuan policy of “5 Circles of Food Safety”, they have promoted the use of traceable fresh food ingredients from our own nation in school lunch meals (by using the implemented strategy titled “Food with 4 Qualification Seals and 1 QR Code”). The purchase contract (standard reference contract) for schools purchasing meal boxes or food from private organizations was revised. In the first semester of the academic year 107, this purchase contract was comprehensively used, so as to enhance food supply quality in elementary and junior high schools.

最後更新日: 2019/11/19


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